Nano Urea

India builds World’s first Nano Urea liquid plant 2022

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Nano Urea

Nano Urea Factory in Gujrat – During a “Sahakar Se Samriddhi” ceremony — a meeting of all cooperative institutions in Gujarat – at Mahatma Mandir in Gandhinagar, the Indian Prime Minister virtually inaugurated the “World’s first Nano Urea Liquid factory” of IFFCO (Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative Limited). The Rs 175-crore IFFCO plant in Kalol can generate 1.5 million 500 ml bottles of Nano liquid Urea.

  • IFFCO invented the liquid fertiliser nano urea. It is a substitute for traditional urea. Essentially, it is urea in the form of nanoparticles.
  • Urea is a white chemical nitrogen fertiliser that artificially delivers nitrogen, an essential ingredient for plants.
  • India has just one active nano urea factory, which produces 5 billion bottles annually.
  • By 2025, 10 facilities will produce up to 44 billion bottles.

Validation of Nano Urea

  • IFFCO Nano Nitrogen, Nano Zinc, and Nano Copper have been studied and validated following the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India’s “Guidelines for Evaluation of Nano-based Agri Input and Food Products in India.”
  • NABL-GLP accredited laboratories have further validated that IFFCO Nano fertilisers are safe and properly assimilated into the plant system, with no hazardous impact at recommended levels.

Before learning about Nano liquid Urea, let’s first look at the current scenario in India regarding the Use of Urea.

What is the Present Status of Fertilizer Usage in India?

  • The spending on fertiliser subsidies was 1.62 lakh crore in 2020-21 and is expected to exceed Rs 2.25 lakh crore in 2022.
  • The nation’s overall need for four fertilisers grew by 21% to 640.27 lakh metric tonnes (LMT) in 2021-22 from 528.86 lakh metric tonnes in 2017-18.
  • The largest increase — 25.44% — was reported in the DAP requirement. The figure increased from 98.77 LMT in 2017-18 to 123.9 LMT in 2021-22.
  • Urea, the most widely used chemical fertiliser in the nation, has increased by 19.64 per cent in the previous five years, rising from 298 LMT in 2017-18 to 356.53 LMT in 2021-22.

Shortage of fertilisers

  • According to the government, the general availability of fertilisers is adequate. However, there are reports of DAP shortages in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh. For the current rabi season, the demand for DAP is 55 lakh tonnes, whereas the supply is 39.10 lakh tonnes.

PM Promotion of Alternate Nutrients for Agriculture Management Yojana (PM PRANAM)

  • Objectives: To promote the use of fertilisers in combination with biofertilisers and organic fertilisers in a balanced manner.
  • The objective is to reduce the subsidy burden on chemical fertilisers, which is projected to reach Rs 2.25 lakh crore in 2022-23, which is 39% more than the number for 2021 (Rs 1.62 lakh crore).


With an annual use of 33.6 million tonnes in 2019-20, Urea accounts for 82% of all nitrogenous fertilisers utilised in India.

Nitrogenous Fertiliser Scenario

  • Urea accounts for more than 82 % of nitrogenous fertilisers used on crops.
  • Every year, 188 million MT of Urea is sprayed on crops across the world.
  • The NPK ratio is skewed and distorted as a result of excessive fertiliser application.
  • Urea has a low utilisation efficiency (30-40 per cent). It directly threatens the health of the Soil, Air, and Water.

Injudicious application of Urea- affects

  • Excessive usage of Urea harms the environment and makes crops vulnerable to insects, pests, and diseases.
  • Crop lodging is caused by excessive leaf growth.
  • It causes soil health to deteriorate due to micronutrient mining.

Pollution due to excessive use of Urea

  • NOx emissions are caused by the usage of N-fertilizers. A portion of the Urea is transformed into NOx and released into the environment. 1 Kg of NOx emission is identical to 298 Kg of Carbon dioxide.
  • Nitrogen Runoff to rivers, lakes and oceans causes excessive algae growth. Excessive algae impact fish and aquatic life due to oxygen depletion.
  • Excess Nitrates leaching into Ground/ Drinking water is harmful to human health.

Now let’s Study the New tech Nano liquid Urea.

Nano Urea
Nano Urea

Nano Urea

Nano fertilisers are the next frontier of nanotechnology in the pursuit of sustainable agriculture. The Nano Urea manufacturing approach simplifies the development of nanoscale materials for improved crop productivity while drastically reducing agrochemical absorption into the soil.

Nano Urea (Liquid) comprises nano-size nitrogen particles with a larger surface area (10,000 times more than 1 mm Urea prill) and a higher particle count (55,000 nitrogen particles greater than 1 mm Urea prill). Furthermore, the use of nano (liquid) urea enhances yield, biomass, soil health, and nutritional quality of products.

Nano (liquid) Urea made using nanotechnology includes nanoscale liquid urea particles. The average physical size of Nano Urea particles is 20-50 nm. In its nano form, nano urea comprises 4% nitrogen by weight. The nitrogen in Nano (liquid) Urea successfully satisfies agricultural nitrogen requirements. It has a higher utilisation rate than regular Urea. Most crops/plants may benefit from the use of Nano (liquid) Urea as a nitrogen source.

Nano Urea has an uptake efficiency of more than 80% when compared to Urea. As a result, it is needed in fewer quantities than standard urea fertiliser to meet the plant’s nitrogen requirements.

Nano Urea Benefits

  • Nano (liquid) Urea boosts crop production and can decrease traditional Urea requirements by 50%.
  • Nano Urea has an uptake efficiency of more than 80% when compared to Urea.
  • Nano Urea will help in stopping NOx and Ammonia emissions.
  • It has the potential to help in meeting the UN Sustainable Development Goals and help in achieving the objectives of the Paris Climate Agreement of limiting Global Warming below 2 Deg Celsius.
  • Nano (liquid) Urea will help in enhancing soil health, improving aquatic life, decreasing nitrate leaching losses and improving groundwater quality.
  • PRODUCE MORE – Improves Crop Productivity
  • REQUIRED LESS– Reduces use of Conventional Urea
  • Transportation would be simpler and more cost-effective since one 500 mL bottle would be comparable to one bag of traditional urea fertiliser.
  • NON-TOXIC – Nano Urea (liquid) is completely safe for humans, animals, birds, rhizosphere organisms and the environment at the recommended levels of application.
  • ECONOMICALLY AFFORDABLE – Cheaper than regular Urea. Nano Urea (Liquid) is free of government subsidies and will be accessible to farmers at a 10% reduced rate over a bag of subsidised Urea.
  • BIO/ECO SAFE -Improves Soil Health

Nanoscale Urea Advantage In assimilation by plants 

Uptake – Dynamics Of Size, Shape And Mode Of Action

  • Nano Urea is a viable alternative to transitioning the farmers away from Urea.
  • Nano Urea is applied at a rate of 500 mL/acre during the early growth stage and before flowering. When sprayed on leaves, it is quickly absorbed and penetrates via stomata and other openings. 
  • It is translocated and metabolically absorbed by the plant as proteins, amino acids, and so on as per the plant’s need.

In conclusion, India has set a new global standard by establishing the world’s first nano urea plant. This plant is able to achieve production of Nano Urea with an uptake efficiency of more than 80%, which is significantly higher than traditional urea. As a result, nano urea has the potential to revolutionize the agricultural industry and improve food production around the world. This could mean a big difference in terms of crop yield for farmers. Consequently, it is important that farmers adopt this technology and realize its benefits.

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