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Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve
- Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve was included in UNESCO World network of Biosphere Reserves in the year 2000.
- The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve have the distinction of being the first biosphere reserve in India.
- It is located in the Western Ghats
- The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve lies in the biogeographic region of the Malabar rain forest.
Geography of Nigiri Reserve
- Total area of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve – 5,520 sq. km.
- Core area(s): 1240 Sq. Km.
- Buffer zone(s): 3574 Sq. Km.
- Transition zone(s): 706 Sq. Km.
- The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve situated in parts of Tamilnadu, Kerala and Karnataka.
|State||Area (sq. km)|
- Nilgiri Biosphere reserve core areas major parts spread over Kerala and Tamil Nadu States, and this include evergreen, semi evergreen, moist deciduous montane sholas and grassland types of vegetation.
- Nilgiri Biosphere reserve core area spread over the State of Karnataka and consists mostly of dry deciduous forests and a few patches of moist deciduous, semi evergreen and scrub jungles.
- Protected areas present within this reserve.
- Nagarhole National Park,
- Bandipur National Park,
- Wyanaad Wildlife Sanctuary
- Mudumalai Tiger reserve and Wildlife Sanctuary,
- Mukurthi National Park
- Silent Valley National Park
Biodiversity of Nigiri Reserve
- The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve comprises of substantial unspoilt areas of natural vegetation thus contributing to highest biodiversity.
- The altitude and climatic gradients supports the different vegetational types.
|Moist evergreen||Dense, moist and multi storeyed forest with gigantic trees||Silent Valley|
|Semi evergreen||Moist, deciduous||Nilambur and Palghat|
|Thorn||Dense||North east parts of the Nilgiri|
|Savannah woodland||Scattered Trees||Mudumalai and Bandipur|
|Sholas & grasslands||evergreen grasslands||South and western areas of Mukurthi national park|
Important Animals found in Nilgiri Biosphere reserve
- Panthera tigris (Tiger),
- Elephas maximus (Elephant),
- Boss gaurus (Gaur),
- Muntiacus muntjak (Barking deer),
- Macaca silenus (Lion tail macaque),
- Axis axis (Cheethal),
- Cervus unicolor (Sambar),
- Sus scrofa (Wild Boar),
- Nilgiri Tahr etc.
Protected areas present within Nilgiri biosphere reserve
There are 6 Important protected area within the Nilgiri reserve which are as follows:
Nagarahole National Park
- Area: 643.39sq.km.
- In 1992 Nagarhole National Park was renamed as “Rajiv Gandhi (Nagarhole) National Park’’ to mark the first death anniversary of Late PrimeMinister Shri.Rajiv Gandhi.
- Nagarhole National Park is partly situated in –
- Kodagu district and
- partly in Mysuru district.
- As the core of Nagarhole Tiger Reserve the National Park is a natural habitat for the source population of Tigers. The entire Nagarhole -Bandipur-Mudumalai-Waynad conservation unit, which holds single largest source population of Tigers in the world.
- Fauna: Elephant, chital, sambar, munjtac, tiger, leopard and wild dog
Bandipur National Park
- Area:800 sq.km
- Location: Convergence of the Eastern and Western Ghats, Karnataka
- The Bandipur, Nagarahole, Wynad & Madumalai complex is home to largest Asian Elephant population in the world
- The Tiger and the Elephants are the flagship and umbrella species that this ecosystem represents.
- Fauna: Elephant, gaur, sambar, barking deer, sloth bear, jackal, wildboar, Malabar squirrel, chowsingha, etc.
Wyanaad Wildlife Sanctuary
- Area: (344 sq.km)
- Location: Kerala
- connected to the protected areas of Mudumalai of Tamilnadu on the south –east and Nagarhole and Bandipur of Karnataka on the north-east.
- Vegetation: Moist dry deciduous
- Fauna: Elephant, Gaur, Tiger, Bonnet macaque, Common langur, Wild dog, common otter, Malabar giant squirrel, Panther, Sambar, Spotted deer, Barking deer, Wild boar, Sloth bear, Nilgiri langur etc
Mudumalai Tiger Reserve and Wildlife sanctuary
- Area: (321 sq.km)
- Location: N.W. corner of Nilgiri plateau, Tamilnadu
- Vegetation: Dry deciduous scrub
- Fauna: Indian giant squirrel, Nilgiri langur, elephant, sambar, gaur and bonnet macaque.
Learn about all 51 Tiger reserves in India with detailed and beautiful map
Mukurthi National Park
- Area: 80 sq.km
- Location: S.E. corner of the Nilgiri plateau, Tamilnadu
- located on the high altitudes of the Nilgiris, consisting of temperate sholas in depressions.
- Vegetation: Sholas and grasslands
- Fauna: Nilgiri Tahr (state animal of Tamilnadu),sambar, barking deer, Nilgiri marten, otter, jungle Cat, jackal etc.
Silent Valley National Park
- Area: 78 sq.km
- Location: Kerala -core of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve
- Vegetation: Evergreen tropical rain forests with grasslands.
- Fauna: Lion tailed macaque, Nilgiri marten and Nilgiri tahr Tiger, Leopard (Panther), Leopard Cat, Small Indian Civet,Sloth Bear, Otter, Flying Squirrel, Malabar Giant Squirrel, Indian Pangolin etc.
Download Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Map
Learn more about Nilgiri Biosphere reserve from Unesco website