Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve was included in UNESCO World network of Biosphere Reserves in the year 2000.
The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve have the distinction of being the first biosphere reserve in India.
It is located in the Western Ghats
The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve lies in the biogeographic region of the Malabar rain forest.
Geography of Nigiri Reserve
Total area of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve – 5,520 sq. km.
Core area(s): 1240 Sq. Km.
Buffer zone(s): 3574 Sq. Km.
Transition zone(s): 706 Sq. Km.
The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve situated in parts of Tamilnadu, Kerala and Karnataka.
Area (sq. km)
Nilgiri Biosphere reserve core areas major parts spread over Kerala and Tamil Nadu States, and this include evergreen, semi evergreen, moist deciduous montane sholas and grassland types of vegetation.
Nilgiri Biosphere reserve core area spread over the State of Karnataka and consists mostly of dry deciduous forests and a few patches of moist deciduous, semi evergreen and scrub jungles.
Protected areas present within this reserve.
Nagarhole National Park,
Bandipur National Park,
Wyanaad Wildlife Sanctuary
Mudumalai Tiger reserve and Wildlife Sanctuary,
Mukurthi National Park
Silent Valley National Park
Biodiversity of Nigiri Reserve
The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve comprises of substantial unspoilt areas of natural vegetation thus contributing to highest biodiversity.
The altitude and climatic gradients supports the different vegetational types.
Dense, moist and multi storeyed forest with gigantic trees
Nilambur and Palghat
North east parts of the Nilgiri
Mudumalai and Bandipur
Sholas & grasslands
South and western areas of Mukurthi national park
Important Animals found in Nilgiri Biosphere reserve
Panthera tigris (Tiger),
Elephas maximus (Elephant),
Boss gaurus (Gaur),
Muntiacus muntjak (Barking deer),
Macaca silenus (Lion tail macaque),
Axis axis (Cheethal),
Cervus unicolor (Sambar),
Sus scrofa (Wild Boar),
Nilgiri Tahr etc.
Protected areas present within Nilgiri biosphere reserve
There are 6 Important protected area within the Nilgiri reserve which are as follows:
Nagarahole National Park
In 1992 Nagarhole National Park was renamed as “Rajiv Gandhi (Nagarhole) National Park’’ to mark the first death anniversary of Late PrimeMinister Shri.Rajiv Gandhi.
Nagarhole National Park is partly situated in –
Kodagu district and
partly in Mysuru district.
As the core of Nagarhole Tiger Reserve the National Park is a natural habitat for the source population of Tigers. The entire Nagarhole -Bandipur-Mudumalai-Waynad conservation unit, which holds single largest source population of Tigers in the world.
Fauna: Elephant, chital, sambar, munjtac, tiger, leopard and wild dog