Ukraine Russia have been in conflict since 2014. Learn the history and impact of the ongoing war. Here is a brief timeline of major events of the latest Ukraine Russia conflict.
Ukraine Russia Conflict
March 1, 2022
Ukraine has petitioned the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on March 1, 2022, to initiate proceedings against Russia over its violation of the Genocide Convention. The ICJ is an organ of the United Nations, and its purpose is to settle disputes between states. The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide was adopted by the United Nations in 1948, and it prohibits genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes.
Several initiatives have been made since World War II’s end to prevent genocide from occurring again. The first attempt was the Genocide Convention, which was drafted in 1948 and came into effect in 1951.
The Genocide Convention is a 1948 international treaty that prohibits genocide. It defines genocide as “acts committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group.” The treaty also requires signatories to take steps to prevent and punish genocide.
23 Feb 2022
Putin directs the attack.
- Mr Putin ordered a “military operation” in Ukraine’s eastern Donbas region on 23 Feb 2022. Many Russian-speaking Ukrainians live in this area. Since 2014, parts of it have been occupied and administered by Russian-backed rebels.
- Mr Putin stated that Russia was intervening in self-defence. He declared that Russia would not occupy Ukraine but would demilitarise and “de-Nazify” it.
- He asked Ukrainian soldiers in the conflict zone to lay down their guns and return home, but he said that battles were unavoidable and “just a matter of time.”
- He also stated that any outside intervention to counter the Russian attack would be confronted with an “instant” retaliation.
February 21, 2022
On Tuesday, February 21, 2022, the Russian Federation officially recognised the two breakaway regions of Ukraine, Donetsk People’s Republic and Luhansk People’s Republic, as independent states. The move by Russia is criticised by the United States and NATO, who viewed it as an attempt by Russia to annex Ukrainian territory. Russia has also deployed troops to the region in a move interpreted as an attempt to destabilise Ukraine and keep it within its sphere of influence.
Ukraine’s sepratist Regions
- The Lugansk and Donetsk People’s Republics are located in Eastern Ukraine’s historical Donbas area.
- Since Ukraine’s independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, eastern and western Ukraine have traditionally voted for separate presidential candidates.
- The fall of President Yanukovych in the 2014 Ukrainian revolution sparked protests in Eastern Ukraine, which eventually erupted into an armed war between the newly created Ukrainian government and local armed groups.
History of Ukraine Russia Crisis
The ongoing crisis results from a protracted Russian-Ukrainian conflict that began in early 2014 and has been escalating since then.
On December 8, 2021, Russia submitted two draft treaties to the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) regarding “security guarantees.” The first treaty requests a legally binding promise from Ukraine that it will not join NATO. At the same time, the second asks for assurances that NATO will not expand into eastern Europe and threatens an unspecified military response if those demands are not met in full.
Russia has justified its request by arguing that NATO and other military alliances into eastern Europe have made Russia increasingly vulnerable to attack. Furthermore, the United States has sold hundreds of anti-tank Javelin missiles to Ukraine in recent years, and Turkey has supplied the Ukrainian army with armed drones.
NATO has rejected these requests, and the US has threatened Russia with “swift and severe” economic sanctions if it invades Ukraine. The crisis is now escalated and has centred in Donbas, described as one of the most intense in Europe since the Cold War.
The disintegration of the Soviet Union
The Soviet Union was a vast country that consisted of several republics. In 1991, the Soviet Union dissolved, and its republics became independent countries. There were many cited reasons for this dissolution, including economic problems and ethnic tensions.
The collapse of the Soviet Union resulted from a variety of factors, including the policies of Mikhail Gorbachev, the rise of nationalism in the Soviet republics, and the economic problems of the Soviet Union. In particular, Gorbachev’s policies of glasnost and perestroika allowed for greater freedom of speech and allowed nationalist movements to grow, which led to the breakup of the Soviet Union.
Why does Russia want to invade Ukraine?
Russia has been eyeing Ukraine for years, and now it looks like they are ready to make their move. The invasion would be a strategic move for Russia, giving them control over a large land area that would border NATO countries. It would also give Russia access to the Black Sea, which would allow them to expand their naval presence.
Another critical point in the Ukraine Russia debate is that Kyiv and Ukraine were once essential parts of the Soviet Union. Putin viewed the Soviet Union’s disintegration in the 1990s as a step back. He has previously referred to Kyiv as “the mother of Russian cities,” which explains why Russia is more obsessed with Ukraine and its capital than with other countries with which it shares a border.
Russia officially recognised Ukraine’s two breakaway territories, Donetsk People’s Republic and Luhansk People’s Republic, as independent states on February 21, 2022, and deployed troops to Donbas. It is seen as Russia’s effective departure from the Minsk Protocol and have escalated the Ukraine Russia conflict
In September 2014, the Minsk Protocol was signed by representatives of Ukraine, Russia, and the (OSCE) Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe -with the assistance of France and Germany’s leaders in the so-called Normandy Format. The Protocol outlined a plan to end the conflict in eastern Ukraine. The plan called for a ceasefire, the withdrawal of heavy weapons from the front lines, and the release of prisoners.
The Minsk agreement was a culmination of multiple previous attempts to stop the fighting in the Donbas; It aimed to put an immediate and effective halt to the fighting. However, it failed to bring the fighting in Donbas to a halt and was thus replaced by a new formula of measures known as Minsk II, and it was signed on February 12, 2015. This, too, failed to stop the crisis, but the Normandy Format parties have agreed that it would serve as the foundation treaty for any future conflict resolution.
Russia and NATO
Russia has had an adversarial relationship with NATO since its inception in 1949. The Soviet Union saw NATO as a threat to its security and was determined to keep it from spreading into Eastern Europe. In the years following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia has continued to view NATO with suspicion, seeing it as a tool of Western imperialism. NATO has responded by expanding eastward, culminating in its membership of many former Soviet republics.
In recent years, tensions between Russia and NATO have increased, as both sides have accused each other of violating international law. There is a real danger that these tensions could lead to a military conflict.
Current Relationship Ukraine Russia
NATO claims it has been striving to create a partnership and discussion with Russia since the end of the Cold War and the 1991 disintegration of the Soviet Union, primarily through the NATO-Russia Council (NRC), a platform for consultation on security matters and cooperation. However, all practical civilian and military cooperation under the NRC with Russia has been stopped since April 2014, responding to Russia’s military interventions and aggressive actions in Ukraine and its unauthorised and unlawful annexation of Crimea, which NATO Allies do not and will not recognise.
India’s Stand on Ukraine Russia War
On January 31, India refrained from a procedural vote at the United Nations Security Council ahead of the meeting to evaluate the situation on the Ukraine border and Ukraine Russia conflict
During a debate at the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) on February 22, India stated it is observing the latest developments along Ukraine’s eastern border and Russia’s recognition of separatist territories in the Donbas region “with deep concern,” but stopped just short of condemning Moscow’s actions.
India does not join the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and other United Nations Security Council members in condemning Russian President Vladimir Putin’s declaration in the recent escalation of Ukraine Russia crisis
India stated that the Ukraine Russia crisis must be resolved under the unimplemented “Minsk Agreements” of 2014-2015. Previously, India welcomed talks under the Trilateral Contact Group, which included Russia, Ukraine, and OSCE members in Europe and talks under the Normandy Format, which included Russia, Ukraine, Germany, and France. India emphasised the importance of constructive diplomacy.
In conclusion, Russia’s desire to invade Ukraine can be boiled down to three reasons:
- Russia wants to protect its interests in Ukraine by any means necessary.
- Russia wants to prevent NATO from expanding into Ukraine.
- Russia wants to expand its power and influence in the region.
While other factors are at play, these are the primary motivations behind Russia’s desire to invade Ukraine. The United States and its allies should take these motivations into account as they continue to respond to the Russian aggression in Ukraine in the Ukraine Russia crisis.
The Trade Impacts Of The Ukraine Russia Conflict
The Ukraine Russia conflict has had a ripple effect on global trade. The sanctions that have been put in place by the United States and the European Union have slowed trade between the two countries and hurt businesses on both sides. The conflict has also had an impact on other countries, as they try to navigate their way through the complex web of trade relations. If the Russia-Ukraine conflict does not end soon, it could significantly impact India’s tea exports to the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
Commonwealth of Independent Nations:
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is a regional organisation that was formed after the breakup of the Soviet Union. The CIS member states are Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Ukraine. The primary purpose of the CIS is to promote economic and political cooperation among its member states.
The Impact on India’s Tea Exports
- Tea exports to the CIS account for roughly 23-24% of the country’s total exports. Exports to the Russian Federation accounted for 30.89 mkg of this total, accounting for nearly 77% of total CIS exports. For Indian tea, Russia is a long-term and very stable market.
Impacts on Oil and Gas
- The Russia-Ukraine conflict will significantly impact global natural gas markets, as Russia produces nearly 17% of natural gas and accounts for 25% of total gas exports. Which countries are India’s major partners in oil imports?
Impact on Metals
- Russia accounts for nearly 12% of the global aluminium trade. Any sanctions imposed on Russian aluminium exports will have an exacerbated effect on metal availability throughout the world.
What is the issue between Ukraine and Russia?
The relationship between Russia and Ukraine has been tense since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Ukraine is a large country that is strategically important to Russia, and Putin has been determined to keep it within Russia’s sphere of influence. The issue between the two countries is over control of the Crimea region. In 2014, Putin ordered Russian troops to occupy Crimea, and since then, Russia has been in control of the region. On Tuesday, February 21, 2022, the Russian Federation officially recognised the two breakaway regions of Ukraine, Donetsk People’s Republic and Luhansk People’s Republic, as independent states.
Does Russia own part of Ukraine?
Russia has been in control of Crimea since 2014 when they invaded and took over the peninsula. The Ukrainian government has repeatedly said that Russia owns a part of their country but has not yet done anything about it. In 2022, Russia officially recognised Ukraine’s two breakaway territories, Donetsk People’s Republic and Luhansk People’s Republic, as independent states on February 21, 2022, and deployed troops to Donbas.
Is Ukraine part of NATO?
As of Feb 2022, Ukraine is not a member of NATO. At the June 2021 Brussels Summit, NATO leaders reaffirmed the 2008 Bucharest Summit resolution that Ukraine will become a member of the Alliance, with the Membership Action Plan (MAP) as a vital element of the process and Ukraine’s freedom to define its future and foreign policy.