There are a total of 53 Tiger reserves in India ( Yes now the number is 53 with the latest addition of Guru Ghasidas National Park of Chhattisgarh ) as of 2022. According to the latest Tiger Census of 2018-19 conducted in 20 states across India, 2967 Tiger live in India. The population growth rate of Tiger is 6% per annum compared with the tiger census of 2006. In this article, we will dive into all the concepts that you need to know regarding the Tiger reserves in India. Starting from Tiger Population In India, then the distribution of Tiger reserves in India with a Map. And Finally NTCA, Tiger translocation Project and some of the famous Tiger Reserves in India.
Table of Contents
53rd Tiger reserve of India
The combined area of Guru Ghasidas National Park (Sanjay National Park) and Tamor Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary of Chhattisgarh have been designated as India’s 53rd Tiger Reserve by the National Tiger Conservation Authority.
Guru Ghasidas National Park
- The Guru Ghasidas National Park is in the districts of Koriya and Surguja in northern Chhattisgarh.
- The National Park is located on the Chhotanagpur plateau and a portion of the Baghelkhand plateau, bordering Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand.
- The park covers an area of 2898.70 square kilometres
- Guru Ghasidas National Park’s forest is moist deciduous and dominated by Sal.
- The park’s elevation ranges from 300 to 1200 metres above sea level.
- The park is highly fragmented and exposed, with 36 villages located within the core area.
- The main causes of forest degradation are increased cultivation, forest land conversion, and grazing.
- Flora: The vegetation is mostly mixed deciduous forest with teak, sal, and bamboo trees.
- Fauna:Tiger, Leopard, Chital, Nilgai, Sambar, Four-horned Antelope, etc.
It is now the fourth Tiger Reserve in Chhattisgarh, following the Udanti-Sitanadi, Achanakmar, and Indravati Reserves. The Asiatic cheetah’s last known habitat in the country was Guru Ghasidas National Park. It links Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh as well as provides a corridor for tigers to move between both the Bandhavgarh (Madhya Pradesh) and Palamau Tiger Reserves (Jharkhand).
Tamor Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary
It is in Chhattisgarh’s Surajpur district, near the border with Uttar Pradesh. It is given the name after Tamor Hill & Pingla Nalla. Tamor Hill and Pingla Nalla are two of the sanctuary’s oldest and most visible features. The sanctuary is mostly covered in mixed deciduous forests. Throughout, there are sal and bamboo forests.
52nd Tiger reserve of India
Ramgarh Vishdhari Tiger Reserve
- On July 5 2021, the MoEF declared India’s 52nd tiger sanctuary the Ramgarh Vishdhari Tiger Reserve.
- Area: 1,052.12 sq. km
- Location: Bundi district Rajasthan, 220 km from state capital Jaipur.
- Capacity: can house 35 tigers.
- Formed by: Its creation was recommended by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)
- Habitat for: will offer a habitat for tigers spilling out of Ranthambore.
- Tiger reserves in Rajasthan: It will be the Fourth Tiger reserve of Rajasthan.
Tiger population in India
- The fourth cycle of National tiger status assessment of 2018-19 covered 381,400 km2 of forested habitats in 20 states of India.
- Tigers were observed to be increasing at a rate of 6% per annum in India when consistently sampled areas were compared from 2006 to 2018
- Tiger Population according to latest assessment is 2967.
53 Tiger Reserves in India
|State||Name of Tiger Reserve||Total area(In Sq. Kms.)|
|6||Andhra Pradesh||Nagarjunsagar Srisailam||3296.31|
|10||Chhattisgarh||Guru Ghasidas National Park||-----|
|17||Madhya Pradesh||Sanjay Dubri||1674.50|
|34||Karnataka||Biligiri Ranganatha Temple||574.82|
|40||Tamil Nadu||Kalakad Mundanthurai. KMTR||1601.54|
|43||Tamil Nadu||Meghamalai||--Not Found--|
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List of Tiger reserves in India.
Government of India divides the geographical area of India into 5 zones to study the population of Tigers in India.
- Shivalik Hills and Gangetic Plains
- Central India and Eastern Ghats
- Western Ghats
- NE Hills and Brahmaputra Plains
Lets study each zone one by one;
Shivalik Hills and Gangetic Plains
|State||Tiger Reserves in India|
Central India and Eastern Ghats
|State||Tiger reserves in India|
|Andhra Pradesh||Nagarjunasagar Srisailam|
|Chhattisgarh||Guru Ghasidas National Park|
|Madhya Pradesh||Sanjay Dubri|
|Rajasthan||Ramgarh Vishdhari Tiger Reserve|
|State||Tiger Reserves in India|
NE Hills and Brahmaputra Plains & Sundarban
|State||Tiger reserves in India|
Tiger population in India: Top 5 states
Which state has maximum tiger reserves in India?
Madhya pradesh with 6 tiger reserves (Maharashtra also have 6, because Pench tiger reserve is part of both Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra), but tiger population of MP is greatest in India.
Smallest Tiger reserve in India?
Bor tiger reserve in Maharashtra with size of 138 sq km.
Largest Tiger reserve in India?
Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve (NSTR) with size of 3,728 km2. In state of Andhra Pradesh is the Largest Tiger reserve in India.
Which is latest Tiger reserve in India
The combined area of Guru Ghasidas National Park (Sanjay National Park) and Tamor Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary have been designated as India’s 53rd Tiger Reserve by the National Tiger Conservation Authority.
Ramgarh Vishdhari Tiger Reserve (RVTR) in Bundi district of Rajasthan was the 52nd Tiger reserve of India and fourth tiger reserve of Rajasthan. Meghamalai in Tamil Nadu was declared as the 51st Tiger reserve in India in 2021.
What is NTCA
National Tiger Conservation Authority is a statutory body under the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change
Drives authority from: Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, as amended in 2006
Chairperson: the authority consists of the Minister in charge of the Ministry of Environment and Forests,
Vice-Chairperson: the Minister of State in the Ministry of Environment and Forests, three members of Parliament,
Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forests and other members.
Implementation and Monitoring of Project Tiger
ground protection initiatives for tigers,
science based monitoring of tigers and their habitat using latest technological tools,
financial and technical support to tiger reserves in india
For conservation of our National Animal TIGER, India launched project tiger in 1973.
Project tiger monitors 53 tiger reserves in India, which is approx. 2.21% of the geographical area of our country.
Project Tiger is Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change which provides central assistance to the tiger States for tiger conservation in tiger reserves in india
NTCA monitors the implementation of project tiger.
Tiger reserves in india are declared by the NTCA, constituted with two components.
Core Area– the core areas have the legal status of a national park or a sanctuary, exclusive tiger agenda is followed in the core areas.
Buffer Area- buffer or peripheral areas are a mix of forest and non-forest land, managed as a multiple use area, an inclusive people oriented agenda is followed in the buffer zone.
Tiger Density In India
A recent study of the tiger population in the Sunderbans, India, suggests that the density of tigers may have reached the carrying capacity. The study, conducted by the Wildlife Institute of India, estimated the population density at different locations in the Sunderbans.
The Sunderbans is a vast area of mangrove forests and wetlands that straddles India and Bangladesh. It is home to a large number of tigers and other wildlife. The forests are under increasing pressure from human development and activities such as fishing and timber harvesting.
Tiger Density in India: An ecosystem can support only a certain population. The maximum population size that an ecosystem can support is called carrying capacity. There are a number of factors that limit how many tigers can live in an area, including food availability, habitat size, and human-tiger conflict. The amount of available prey determines how many tigers can exist in a given area.
Limiting factors determine the carrying capacity of the ecosystem. Space, food, oxygen, water etc., are limiting factors.
There is a finite amount of space and resources available to sustain life in any given ecosystem. When populations of a species exceed the carrying capacity of their environment, the ecosystem may become unsuitable for the species to survive. This can lead to higher levels of human-wildlife conflict in the reserve peripheries as people and animals compete for diminishing resources. To avert such a scenario, it is crucial to manage ecosystems in a way that does not push species beyond their ecological limits.
|Region||Example||Tiger density per 100 sq.km|
|Terai and Shivalik region||Corbett Tiger Reserve||10-16 tigers|
|Reserves of North-Central Western Ghats||Bandipur Tiger Reserve||7-11 tigers|
|Dry deciduous forests of central India.||Kanha Tiger Reserve||6-10 tigers|
|Sunderbans Mangroves||Sunderbans Tiger Reserve||4 tigers|
Tiger translocation project
- Tiger translocation was first successfully carried out in India in Rajasthan in the year 2008 when a tiger from Ranthambore was relocated to Sariska tiger reserve.
- This time it was the first Inter-State Tiger relocation programme, from Madhya Pradesh to Odisha and it failed.
- Mahavir died and Sundari returned back to home in Madhya Pradesh after failure of tiger translocation project.
- This inter-state Project started in 2018 when Mahavir from Kanha tiger reserve and Sundari from Bandhavgarh tiger reserve in MP were chosen by NTCA in collaboration with Wildlife Institute of India (WII), to be transferred to Satkosia Tiger Reserve in Odisha.
What is the Tiger translocation Project?
Tiger translocation Project was started to achieve two aims:
- To reduce the number of tigers in areas with a high Tiger population, to reduce the territorial disputes among these big cats.
- To reintroduce Tigers in those areas where the population of tigers have reduced considerably.
- NTCA is the administration authority.
NTCA and Wildlife institute of India Dehradun collaborate and select the tigers to be relocated based on two factors:
- A Young animal
- Which is in transient and yet to establish any territory.
About Satkosia Tiger Reserve
- Location: Odisha
- Area: 963 Sq. Km.
- It was selected for the Tiger translocation Project because according to NTCA there is potential to increase tiger population in it.
Cause of Failure of the project
- According to Conservationist and former Forest officials the major reason of project failure is lack of confidence and trust building between the villagers of the Satkosia Tiger Reserve and the forest department officials.
- The translocation of Mahavir and Sundari led to an increase in conflicts between the two and the humans, which resulted in the death of Mahavir, and Sundari was kept in captivity for 28 months.
- NTCA has suspended the Tiger translocation project after this failure.
official tiger status report: https://ntca.gov.in/documents/#reports2
International Tiger Day
- 29th July is observed as the Global Tiger Day since the year 2010.
- International Tiger Day was first started in the year 2010, at Saint Petersburg Tiger Summit in Russia.
- The day is marked to raise awareness about the declining population of wild tigers and also to encourage the work of Tiger conservation.
- In the Saint Petersburg Tiger Summit, a declaration was made in which Governments of tiger populated countries had vowed to double the Tiger population by 2022.
- India is home to over 70% of the tiger population globally, with 53 tiger reserves in india spread across 18 states as shown above in the article.
- India’s latest tiger census of 2018 showed a growth in the tiger population. Notably, India achieved the target of doubling of tiger population 4 years ahead of schedule of the St. Petersburg Declaration on Tiger Conservation.
St Petersburg Declaration
- In November 2010, the first “Tiger Summit” was held in St Petersburg, Russia.
- Global Tiger Recovery Programme was declared at the summit to reverse the rapid decline of tigers, and also aim to double their numbers by 2022.
- India was one of the 13 tiger range countries that participated in the summit.
- The 13 Tiger range countries are:-
- Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand and Vietnam.
- The leaders of these nations committed to drawing up action plan to –
- Strengthen the tiger reserves in india
- Crackdown on poachers
- Provide financial assistance to maintain a thriving tiger population
Tiger reserves in India
Some of the Important Tiger reserves in India is covered below in detail
Periyar Tiger reserve
- Periyar holds two protected area designation, Periyar National Park and Periyar Tiger Reserve
- Periyar National park is located in the Idukki District of the Kerala State.
- The Periyar National park ( Periyar Tiger Reserve ) is the largest protected area in Kerala.
- The Periyar lake inside the Periyar National park was created in 1895 by building a dam across the Mullaperiyar river. The lake has an area of 26 Sq. km.
- The forest surrounding the Periyar lake was declared as a reserved forest in 1899 and later in 1933 it was decalared a sanctuary, the Nellikkampetty Game Sanctuary.
- The sanctuary was brought under Project Tiger in 1977 and it became Periyar Tiger reserve.
- Major part of the Periyar Tiger Reserve lies in the Anamalai-High Ranges.
- Anamalai is one of the centres in the Western Ghats with a high percentage of endemism.
Learn about Periyar Tiger reserve which also have the designation of Periyar National Park along with all National Parks in Kerala with Map
Sariska Tiger reserve
Sariska Tiger reserve
- Sariska wildlife sanctuary is approx. 800 sq. km, and the Sariska National park in it is of 273 sq.km
Sariska holds all three protective areas designation:
- Sariska Tiger reserve,
- Sariska National park,
- Sariska wildlife sanctuary.
Location and Geography
- Sariska is Located in the Aravalli Ranges as can be seen in the map, so it is rich in minerals resources especially Cooper.
- Though the Supreme Court of India has banned the mining activities in this area, marble mining is still rampant in this zone of Aravalli Ranges.
- As Sariska National park is located in the Aravalli Ranges which has been denuded over centuries, it consists of small hills and rocky landscape.
Flora and Fauna.
- Sariska is famous for its Bengal tigers, but there was a time when tiger population became zero in the park around 2005. So efforts were made to reintroduce Tigers in the park, one male tiger and two female tigress were relocated to Sariska National park from Ranthambore National park in Rajasthan only.
- The combined efforts of Government of Rajasthan, Government of India and Wildlife institute of india, and tracking support from ISRO made the relocation project a success.
- Now there are plenty of tigers in the Sariska National park.
- Other important species found in Sariska are- leopard, sambar deer, chital, hyena, jackal etc.
- The vegetation found in Sariska is mainly dry deciduous forest along with scrub thorn forest
Learn about all National Parks in Rajasthan with Map
Pench Tiger Reserve
Pench Tiger Reserve
- Pench holds both designations a National Park as well as Tiger Reserve.
- Pench Tiger Reserve spreads across two states – Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. But generally, the Pench name is associated with Madhya Pradesh.
- The Pench National park finds its mention in natural history books such as Ain-i-Akbari .
- Rudyard Kipling’s famous Jungle Book is based on the Pench National park and its surrounding areas.
Major species found
- Three types of forest found in Pench National park.
- Tropical wet deciduous forest
- Tropical dry deciduous teak forest
- Tropical dry deciduous mixed forest.
- Teak, mahua, palash, plum, tendu, moyan, sajja etc.
- Tiger, leopard, jackal, fox, wolf, Gaur, nilgai, Sambhar, chital, chinkara, wild dogs,
- Various migratory birds also found their shelter in Pench National park, such as Pintail, ruddy shelduck, whistling teal etc.
Learn about all National Parks in Madhya Pradesh with Map
Bandipur Tiger Reserve
27 aug 2021: Bandipur Tiger Reserve is in news recently for road widening proposal
Bandipur Tiger Reserve
- It was established in 1973.
- In 1985, by including areas of Venugopala Wildlife Park, it was expanded and declared as Bandipur National Park.
- It is located in two contiguous districts of Karnataka- Mysore and Chamarajanagar.
- It is at the tri-junction of the Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
- It’s part of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.
- It is surrounded by:
- Mudumalai Tiger Reserve in the South.
- Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary in the South-west.
- Kabini Reservoir on the North-west.
- The Bandipur National Park along with Nagarahole, Mudumalai, Sathyamangalam & Wayanad have the single largest Wild population of Tigers in the whole world.
- It is also home to the largest Asian Elephant population in the world.
- Kabini river is in its north and the Moyar river in the south. The Nugu river flows through the Bandipur Tiger Reserve.
- The highest point in the Bandipur NP is Himavad Gopalaswamy Betta.
Satkosia Tiger Reserve
This area holds two designation
- Satkosia Tiger Reserve
- Satkosia Wildlife sanctuary
- Satkosia Tiger Reserve is located in the heartland of Odisha and spread over four districts viz. Angul, Cuttack, Boudh and Nayagarh.
- The terrain is hilly with moderate to steep slopes and narrow valleys. The General elevation varies from 37 Mtrs. to 932 Mtrs.
- The lowest point is 37 m. on the view bed at Katrang and the highest peak is Sunakhania at 932m.
- The river Mahanadi flows through the valleys in the mid of the Reserve
Satkosia Tiger Reserve comprises two adjacent sanctuaries of Odisha named:
- Satkosia Gorge Sanctuary and Baisipalli Sanctuary.
- These two sanctuaries together cover an area of 963.87 sq. km and were notified as Tiger Reserve in 2007.
- All national parks in odhisa
Amrabad Tiger Reserve
Amrabad Tiger Reserve lies in the Nallamalla Hills in Telangana and one can reach the Amrabad tiger Reserve by taking the road from Hyderabad to Srisailam.
Before the separation of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh in 2014, Amrabad Tiger Reserve was part of India’s largest tiger reserve. Despite the division, it still happens to be India’s second-largest tiger reserve, next only to its partner Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve. Together they form what is probably India’s largest protected dry forest.
Amrabad Tiger Reserve Forest is home to the largest number of Tigers in Telangana State. It is a mystifying landscape of lofty hills and cavernous valleys, perennial rivers. The hilly terrain of this Tiger Reserve with deep valleys and gorges forms the catchment of the Krishna River.
More Details about Amrabad Tiger Reserve
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