There are a total of 51 Tiger reserves in India as of 2021. According to the latest Tiger Census of 2018-19 conducted in 20 states across India, 2967 Tiger live in India. The population growth rate of Tiger is 6% per annum compared with the tiger census of 2006.
Table of Contents
Tiger population in India
- The fourth cycle of National tiger status assessment of 2018-19 covered 381,400 km2 of forested habitats in 20 states of India.
- Tigers were observed to be increasing at a rate of 6% per annum in India when consistently sampled areas were compared from 2006 to 2018
- Tiger Population according to latest assessment is 2967.
Tiger Reserves in India
|State||Name of Tiger Reserve||Total area(In Sq. Kms.)|
|6||Andhra Pradesh||Nagarjunsagar Srisailam||3296.31|
|16||Madhya Pradesh||Sanjay Dubri||1674.50|
|32||Karnataka||Biligiri Ranganatha Temple||574.82|
|38||Tamil Nadu||Kalakad Mundanthurai. KMTR||1601.54|
|41||Tamil Nadu||Meghamalai||--Not Found--|
Download Tiger reserves in India Map 2021
List of Tiger reserves in India.
Government of India divides the geographical area of India into 5 zones to study the population of Tigers in India.
- Shivalik Hills and Gangetic Plains
- Central India and Eastern Ghats
- Western Ghats
- NE Hills and Brahmaputra Plains
Lets study each zone one by one;
Shivalik Hills and Gangetic Plains
Central India and Eastern Ghats
|Andhra Pradesh||Nagarjunasagar Srisailam|
|Madhya Pradesh||Sanjay Dubri|
NE Hills and Brahmaputra Plains & Sundarban
Tiger population in India: Top 5 states
Which state has maximum tiger reserves in India?
Madhya pradesh with 6 tiger reserves (Maharashtra also have 6, because Pench tiger reserve is part of both Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra), but tiger population of MP is greatest in India.
Smallest Tiger reserve in India?
Bor tiger reserve in Maharashtra with size of 138 sq km.
Largest Tiger reserve in India?
Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve (NSTR) with size of 3,728 km2. In state of Andhra Pradesh is the Largest Tiger reserve in India.
Which is latest Tiger reserve in India
Meghamalai in Tamil Nadu is declared as the 51st Tiger reserve in India in 2021.
What is NTCA
National Tiger Conservation Authority is a statutory body under the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change
Drives authority from: Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, as amended in 2006
Chairperson: the authority consists of the Minister in charge of the Ministry of Environment and Forests,
Vice-Chairperson: the Minister of State in the Ministry of Environment and Forests, three members of Parliament,
Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forests and other members.
Implementation and Monitoring of Project Tiger
ground protection initiatives for tigers,
science based monitoring of tigers and their habitat using latest technological tools,
financial and technical support to tiger reserves,
For conservation of our National Animal TIGER, India launched project tiger in 1973.
Project tiger monitors 51 tiger reserves in India, which is approx. 2.21% of the geographical area of our country.
Project Tiger is Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change which provides central assistance to the tiger States for tiger conservation in tiger reserves.
NTCA monitors the implementation of project tiger.
Tiger reserves are declared by the NTCA, constituted with two components.
Core Area– the core areas have the legal status of a national park or a sanctuary, exclusive tiger agenda is followed in the core areas.
Buffer Area- buffer or peripheral areas are a mix of forest and non-forest land, managed as a multiple use area, an inclusive people oriented agenda is followed in the buffer zone.
Tiger translocation project
- Tiger translocation was first successfully carried out in India in Rajasthan in the year 2008 when a tiger from Ranthambore was relocated to Sariska tiger reserve.
- This time it was the first Inter-State Tiger relocation programme, from Madhya Pradesh to Odisha and it failed.
- Mahavir died and Sundari returned back to home in Madhya Pradesh after failure of tiger translocation project.
- This inter-state Project started in 2018 when Mahavir from Kanha tiger reserve and Sundari from Bandhavgarh tiger reserve in MP were chosen by NTCA in collaboration with WWI- Dehradun, to be transferred to Satkosia Tiger Reserve in Odisha.
What is the Tiger translocation Project?
This project is started to achieve two aims:
- To reduce the number of tigers in areas with a high Tiger population, to reduce the territorial disputes among these big cats.
- To reintroduce Tigers in those areas where the population of tigers have reduced considerably.
- NTCA is the administration authority.
NTCA and Wildlife institute of India Dehradun collaborate and select the tigers to be relocated based on two factors:
- A Young animal
- Which is in transient and yet to establish any territory.
About Satkosia Tiger Reserve
Area: 963 Sq. Km.
It was selected for the Tiger translocation Project because according to NTCA there is potential to increase tiger population in it.
Cause of Failure of the project
- According to Conservationist and former Forest officials the major reason of project failure is lack of confidence and trust building between the villagers of the Satkosia Tiger Reserve and the forest department officials.
- The translocation of Mahavir and Sundari led to an increase in conflicts between the two and the humans, which resulted in the death of Mahavir, and Sundari was kept in captivity for 28 months.
- NTCA has suspended the Tiger translocation project after this failure.
official tiger status report: https://ntca.gov.in/documents/#reports2
Tiger reserves in India
Some of the Important Tiger reserves in India is covered below in detail
Periyar Tiger reserve
- Periyar holds two protected area designation, Periyar National Park and Periyar Tiger Reserve
- Periyar National park is located in the Idukki District of the Kerala State.
- The Periyar National park ( Periyar Tiger Reserve ) is the largest protected area in Kerala.
- The Periyar lake inside the Periyar National park was created in 1895 by building a dam across the Mullaperiyar river. The lake has an area of 26 Sq. km.
- The forest surrounding the Periyar lake was declared as a reserved forest in 1899 and later in 1933 it was decalared a sanctuary, the Nellikkampetty Game Sanctuary.
- The sanctuary was brought under Project Tiger in 1977 and it became Periyar Tiger reserve.
- Major part of the Periyar Tiger Reserve lies in the Anamalai-High Ranges.
- Anamalai is one of the centres in the Western Ghats with a high percentage of endemism.
Learn about Periyar Tiger reserve which also have the designation of Periyar National Park along with all National Parks in Kerala with Map
Sariska Tiger reserve
Sariska Tiger reserve
- Sariska wildlife sanctuary is approx. 800 sq. km, and the Sariska National park in it is of 273 sq.km
Sariska holds all three protective areas designation:
- Sariska Tiger reserve,
- Sariska National park,
- Sariska wildlife sanctuary.
Location and Geography
- Sariska is Located in the Aravalli Ranges as can be seen in the map, so it is rich in minerals resources especially Cooper.
- Though the Supreme Court of India has banned the mining activities in this area, marble mining is still rampant in this zone of Aravalli Ranges.
- As Sariska National park is located in the Aravalli Ranges which has been denuded over centuries, it consists of small hills and rocky landscape.
Flora and Fauna.
- Sariska is famous for its Bengal tigers, but there was a time when tiger population became zero in the park around 2005. So efforts were made to reintroduce Tigers in the park, one male tiger and two female tigress were relocated to Sariska National park from Ranthambore National park in Rajasthan only.
- The combined efforts of Government of Rajasthan, Government of India and Wildlife institute of india, and tracking support from ISRO made the relocation project a success.
- Now there are plenty of tigers in the Sariska National park.
- Other important species found in Sariska are- leopard, sambar deer, chital, hyena, jackal etc.
- The vegetation found in Sariska is mainly dry deciduous forest along with scrub thorn forest
Learn about all National Parks in Rajasthan with Map
Pench Tiger Reserve
Pench Tiger Reserve
- Pench holds both designations a National Park as well as Tiger Reserve.
- Pench Tiger Reserve spreads across two states – Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. But generally, the Pench name is associated with Madhya Pradesh.
- The Pench National park finds its mention in natural history books such as Ain-i-Akbari.
- Rudyard Kipling’s famous Jungle Book is based on the Pench National park and its surrounding areas.
Major species found
- Three types of forest found in Pench National park.
- Tropical wet deciduous forest
- Tropical dry deciduous teak forest
- Tropical dry deciduous mixed forest.
- Teak, mahua, palash, plum, tendu, moyan, sajja etc.
- Tiger, leopard, jackal, fox, wolf, Gaur, nilgai, Sambhar, chital, chinkara, wild dogs,
- Various migratory birds also found their shelter in Pench National park, such as Pintail, ruddy shelduck, whistling teal etc.
Learn about all National Parks in Madhya Pradesh with Map
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