- Rajasthan, the India’s biggest state, is located in the northwestern region of the country and encompasses an area of 3,42,239 square kilometres, accounting for 10.40 per cent of the country’s geographical area.
- The state’s geographical boundaries are 23°4’N to 30°11’N latitude and 69°29’E to 78°17′ E longitude.
- The state is divided into four separate regions:
- the Western Desert with Barren Hills,
- the Level Rocky and Sandy Plains,
- the Aravalli Hills,
- the South-Eastern Plateau.
You can Study more about Rajasthan State profile at the end of Article, before that let’s see the Five National Park in Rajasthan.
5 National park in Rajasthan
The State’s Protected Area network, which includes five National Parks, 25 Wildlife Sanctuaries, and 11 Conservation Reserves, covers 2.92 per cent of its geographical area. There are three Project Tiger sites (Ranthambhore, Sariska, and Mukundra Hills), as well as two Ramsar sites (Keoladeo Ghana Sanctuary and Sambhar Lake).
|National Park in Rajasthan in 2022||Area|
|1. Desert National Park||3162 km2|
|2. Ranthambore National Park||274 km2|
|3. Sariska National Park||273 km2|
|4. Mukundara hills national park ( Darrah National Park)||200 km2|
|5. Keoladeo National Park||29 km2|
Based on the interpretation of the Forest Survey of India report 2021, the forest cover in the state of Rajasthan is as follows:
|Geographical area||3,42,239 sq km|
|Very Dense Forest||78 sq km|
|Moderately Dense Forest||4,369 sq km|
|Open Forest||12,208 sq km|
There are 5 National park in Rajasthan as can be seen in the map given, Lets study them in order of there decreasing geographical area, along with their climatic conditions and Flora & Fauna.
Download National park in Rajasthan Map
1.Desert National Park
- The desert National park spreads 1900 km2 in Jaisalmer and 1262 km2 in Barmer district in Rajasthan, covering a total of 3162 km2
- Became UNESCO world heritage site :1980(Source:https://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5448/)
- Declared National park in 1981 (Source: http://wiienvis.nic.in/Database/Rajasthan_7836.aspx)
Location and geography
- Desert National Park (DNP) has sand dunes in the western parts and rocky and gravelly area in the remaining park area.
- DNP is a barren area with sand dunes and few hills in the north- west side.
- So DNP is mostly sandy with undulating terrain.
- The Thar desert area in which DNP lies receives very low rainfall (less than 100 mm), so it is a very hot and arid region.
- Though the Thar desert is one the most populated desert in the world, but the human population density in DNP is very low (4-5 persons per sq.km).
- There are 73 village settlements or DHANIS inside the DNP. They form an integral part of the DNP and have existed here for hundreds of years.
- The Wood Fossil Park at Akal near Jaisalmer is under DNP jurisdiction, and Fossil evidence dating back to the Jurassic Period i.e. 180 million years old, have been recovered from here.
Flora and fauna
- The Great Indian Bustard is native to the DNP, and its largest thriving population is found in DNP only.
- The endangered oriental white backed vulture and Long billed Gyps are also found here.
- The Thar desert is rich in snake species, and 11% of total 456 reptile species of India, are found in DNP.
- DNP is the only place where Rajasthan State Bird (Great Indian Bustard), State animal (Chinkara) and State tree (Khejri) and State flower (Rohida) are found naturally.
Great Indian Bustard
The heaviest Flying Bird On the Planet
Great Indian Bustard Status of Conservation
- Critically Endangered (IUCN Red Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2017 -1)
- CITES-Appendix I
- Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection)Act, 1972
Nearly 200 in number as per DCF DNP office. Great Indian Bustard is Found in Largest number in State of Rajasthan and is also state bird of Rajasthan. Few scattered number are also found in Gujrat.
ABOUT GREAT INDIAN BUSTARD
- Locally called ‘Godavan’, which is a large territorial bird of grassland.
- It habitat consists of large landscape of dry grassland and scrub.
- It’s breeding season start from March to September.
- Adult bustards have territories of up to 1-2 sq.km.
- To defend the territories fight among adult bustard are common and aggressive.
- The male does not allow any intruder in their territories.
- They prefer grass land and select a prominent place from which it can have a panoramic view of it’s territories.
- The diets comprises of grains, drupes of Zizyphus, berries of Carissa, insect, small lizards and snakes.
STATUS of Great Indian Bustard in 2021
- The Great Indian Bustard with largest wing span is unable to save itself from the human population as they are on brink of extinction.
- The GIB is falling dead after colliding with overhead powerlines running through desert national park and surrounding areas.
- A Case is going on in Supreme Court ( as of 16 march 2021) which will decide on the way forward to save the great Indian bustards.
- The two options which are under considerations are:
- Whether Overhead power lines can be replaced with Undergound power lines
- Installation of Flight bird Divertors on the power lines which shines from a distance and alerts GIB to change its flight path as GIB has a narrow Vision range.
2. Ranthambore National Park
- 274 sq. Km.
- The Ranthambore protected area got its name from the Ranthambore fort located inside this protected area.
- Ranthambore fort is surrounded by forest area with a well thriving population of tigers, this made this area suitable for hunting by the Maharajas of Jaipur.
- After the launch of Project Tiger in 1973 Ranthambore became a tiger reserve. In 1980, 274 sq. Km area of this reserve was declared National Park.
- In 1992 Keladevi sanctuary in north and Sawai Mansingh sanctuary in South was merged with Ranthambore tiger reserve, and it now spreads over approx. 1334 sq. Km area in Rajasthan.
Location and Geography
- Ranthambore National Park is located in the eastern part of Rajasthan.
- It is located at the junction of two famous mountain ranges, the Aravallis and the Vindhyan hill ranges.
- Ranthambore is also endowed with big lakes, the Padam Talav, Raj Bagh, Mallik Talav are the biggest ones.
Flora and Fauna
- Ranthambore National Park is the northernmost limit of the distribution range of Bengal tiger.
- It is also home to a good population of leopards, other animals found here are striped hyenas, jackals, blackbuck, chinkara, chital, sambhar, nilgai, rhesus macaque etc.
- The forest area of Ranthambore is mostly dry deciduous with abundance of a tree species locally known as ” Dhak” that is capable of withstanding long periods of drought.
3. Sariska National Park
- Sariska wildlife sanctuary is approx. 800 sq. km, and the Sariska National park in it is of 273 sq.km
Sariska has all three protective areas in it:
- Tiger reserve,
- National park,
- wildlife sanctuary.
Location and Geography
- Sariska is Located in the Aravalli Ranges as can be seen in the map, so it is rich in minerals resources especially Cooper.
- Though the Supreme Court of India has banned the mining activities in this area, marble mining is still rampant in this zone of Aravalli Ranges.
- As Sariska National park is located in the Aravalli Ranges which has been denuded over centuries, it consists of small hills and rocky landscape.
Flora and Fauna.
- Sariska is famous for its Bengal tigers, but there was a time when tiger population became zero in the park around 2005. So efforts were made to reintroduce Tigers in the park, one male tiger and two female tigress were relocated to Sariska National park from Ranthambore National park in Rajasthan only.
- The combined efforts of Government of Rajasthan, Government of India and Wildlife institute of india, and tracking support from ISRO made the relocation project a success.
- Now there are plenty of tigers in the Sariska National park.
- Other important species found in Sariska are- leopard, sambar deer, chital, hyena, jackal etc.
- The vegetation found in Sariska is mainly dry deciduous forest along with scrub thorn forest
4. Mukundara hills national park ( Darrah National Park)
- 200 sq. Km
History and Location
- Mukundara hills national park is also known as Darrah National park, the word ” Darrah” is a local word which literally means ” Pass”.
- This National park is a pass between two parallel mountains , Mukundra and Gagrola.
- It was declared National park in 2004, and was declared tiger reserve in 2013 and became the third tiger reserve of Rajasthan.
- Mukundara hills national park resides inside mukundara hills tiger reserve.
- The Mukundara hills tiger reserve comprises 3 wildlife sanctuaries in it.
- Chambal wildlife sanctuary
- Darrah wildlife sanctuary
- Jawahar sagar wildlife sanctuary
- Kalisindh river forms the eastern boundary and Chambal river forms the western boundary of Mukundara hills wildlife sanctuary.
Flora and Fauna
- The Mukundara national park has very few tigers remaining in it.
- Other species found are:- leopard, chital, sambar deer, chinkara etc.
- Vegetation is mostly dry deciduous forest.
5. Keoladeo National Park
- 29 sq. Km
- Formerly known as Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary.
- UNESCO World Heritage site.
- Birds paradise.
- It is a man made wetland area. The earlier ruler of this area Suraj Mal, flooded this area by building Ajan bund, and water from nearby rivers Banganga and Gambhir was fed into this area having lowland topography.
- The keoladeo National park contains 10 artificial lagoons.
Flora and Fauna
- It is recognised as one of the world’s most important breeding areas for birds.
- One of the most famous bird species visiting this area in the winter season is critically endangered Siberian Crane.
- Other species found here are- cranes, pelican, Eagles, Flycatchers, Demoiselle cranes, falcons, jackals, chital, Nilgai, hyenas, porcupine etc.
- The vegetation of this wetland is mostly kadam, babul, kair, ber etc.
Quick revision video
Forest in Rajasthan
- Rajasthan, India’s biggest state by geographical size, ranks 15th in terms of Recorded Forest Area and is a forest-deficient state.
- According to the Champion and Seth Classification Rajasthan’s forests are classified into two types which are further classified into 20 ForestTypes:
- Tropical dry deciduous forests
- Tropical thorn forests.
- Along the Indira Gandhi Canal, the state offers instances of some of the finest afforestation systems.
Climate of Rajasthan
- The state’s climate ranges from semi-arid to arid. The state’s western section, including the Thar Desert (also known as The Great Indian Desert), is arid and barren, but the southwestern part is wetter, hillier, and much more fertile.
- The average annual temperature varies from 0°C to 50°C, while the average annual rainfall ranges from 500 mm to around 750 mm.
Rivers in Rajasthan
The state is drained by several rivers, including the Banas, Chambal, Luni, and Mahi.
Population of Rajasthan
There are 33 districts in the state ( Rajasthan Map ) . Rajasthan has a population of 68.55 million people, accounting for 5.66 per cent of India’s population, according to the 2011 Census. Rural and urban populations are 75.10 per cent and 24.90 per cent, respectively. The population density is 200 people per square kilometre, which is substantially lower than the national average of 382 people per square kilometre.
According to the 19th Livestock Census 2012, the overall livestock population in the state is 57.73 million.
In conclusion, National Park in Rajasthan are of utmost importance for the preservation of nature. They provide a much-needed refuge for many threatened and endangered species, as well as a place for people to connect with nature. By conserving these areas, we can help ensure that future generations will be able to enjoy the beauty and benefits of Rajasthan’s natural heritage.