Table of Contents
Indus river system
- Indus river or sindhu river originates near Mount kailash at lake Mansrovar located in Tibet region.
- Historically important Indus valley civilisation thrived on the banks of the indus river.
- Indus river runs for a length of 2900 km from its source to its delta.
- Indus river starts its journey from Mount Kailash amd flows in north west direction , After entering India it flows between Ladhak range and Zaskar range , continuing its course in north west direction till the Nanga Parbat syntaxical bend from where indus river takes a sharp southerly direction.
- The indus river gradient in jammu and Kashmir is very steep almost 30 cm per kilometre.
Download Indus river system Map
Indus river system tributaries can be classified into minor and major tributaries for the sake of understanding based on the river size, So lets cover them one by one.
Minor tributaries of river Indus in the Jammu and Kashmir are
- Zanskar river lies completely in ladhak UT and it originates to the North East of mighty Himalayas in the zaskar region,
- It is the first tributary of indus river in india
- Shyok river originates from Siachin glacier , nubra river is tributary of shyok river which in turn is tributary of indus river.
- In 2019 Colonel Chewang Rinchen Bridge was constructed over shyok river in ladhak region.
- Suru river originates from Deosai mountains and flow in opposite direction of indus river and hence it is also called as obsequent tributary of indus river.
- Kargil is located on banks of suru river and chutak dam is over suru river. Burzil la pass lies on suru river path.
- Hunza river flows in Gilgit baltistan region which is presently located in Pakistan occupied Kashmir.
- Gilgit river Flows in Gilgit region , POK.
Major tributaries of Indus river
- Chenab river
- Ravi river
- Beas river
- Satluj river
- Jhelum river originates from verinag located in pir panjal range in kasmir.
- Jhelum river founds it’s mention in Rigveda also as Vitasta.
- Jhelum is life line of Kashmir valley peoples, and also cause havocs at times due to flooding.
- Kishan ganga river is a tributary of Jhelum river. It was in news recently due to kishan ganga hydroelectric project, construction of which was objected by Pakistan and it went to International court of arbitration , but court verdict came in favour of india.
- Jhelum river itself is a tributary of chenab river
- Chenab river originates from Zaskar range in lahul spiti part near the Bara lacha la pass in Himachal Pradesh
- Basically two streams Chandra and Bhaga on opposite sides of bara lacha la pass merge and form the river chandrabhaga also known as Chenab river.
- Originates in zaskar range and flows parallel to pir panjal range through Pangi valley.
- Jhelum and ravi merge with chenab and ultimately into the satluj river.
- Recently in 2021 Government of India approved 850MW Rattle hydroelectric project on Chenab river in the Kishtwar region of Jammu and Kashmir.
- Ravi river originates near Rohtang pass in kullu hills, Himachal Pradesh
- It flows in between pir panjal range and dhauladhar range
- Ravi river forms international border between india and pakistan during its course.
- Ravi river merge with chenab river.
- Beas river originates from Himachal Pradesh near to the Rohtang pass at the southern end of pir panjal range
- It crosses the dhauladhar range and meets satluj at Harike in Punjab.
- It is a relatively small river and flows completely inside Indian territory.
- The satluj river rises from Manasarovar rakas Lake in tibet near to the source of the mighty Indus river.
- It starts its journey in north west direction and enters india near the Shipki la pass on India and Tibet border.
- Passes through great Himalayas making deep gorges and enters Punjab plains at Nanda devi Dhar where the famous Bhakra dam is constructed.
- Beas joins the satluj river at Harike in punjab.
- Satluj river forms international boundary between India and pakistan during its flow in punjab state
Indus Water Treaty
- Indus Water Treaty (IWT) is water distribution treaty between India and Pakistan signed on September 19, 1960
- Brokered by the World Bank (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development)
- Indus water treaty divides the Indus river system into two river systems
- Eastern Rivers- Ravi, Beas, Satluj
- Western Rivers- Indus, Jhelum, Chenab
- Treaty talks about unrestricted use of water, eastern river system has been allocated to India and western river system has been allocated to Pakistan.
- It don’t mean that India cant use western rivers water, treaty specifically mention “non-consumptive needs” which means India can use western rivers water for purposes such as electricity production, irrigation, and storage also.
- Permanent Indus Commission has been setup to manage the treaty.
- Share wise treaty allocates around 80% water of Indus river system to Pakistan
- for more details about Indus water treaty checkout this government of India official document- https://mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/6439/Indus
Permanent Indus Commission
- A bilateral commission of India and Pakistan officials, to manage and implement goals of the Indus Waters Treaty, 1960.
- The Commission as per treaty must meet regularly at least once a year, alternately in India and Pakistan.
Functions of the Commission are:
- to solve disputes arising over water sharing as per treaty.
- to observe and report to the two Governments of India and Pakistan on any problem relating to the development on the waters of the rivers.
- to host technical visits to projects’ sites and critical river head works.
- In every five years undertake a general tour of inspection of the Rivers for verifying the facts.
LATEST UPDATE 2021:
- Since the nullification of ART 370 and creation of union territories of Ladakh and Jammu Kashmir, India has cleared few hydropower projects in the Ladakh union territory which includes:
Durbuk Shyok (19 MW), Nimu Chilling (24 MW), Shankoo (18.5 MW), Rongdo (12 MW), Ratan Nag (10.5 MW) for Leh, while Mangdum Sangra (19 MW), Kargil Hunderman (25 MW) and Tamasha (12 MW).
- Pakistan’s concerns on hydropower project on Chenab river will be discussed in this year’s meeting which will be held on 23-24 March in Delhi.
This article covered the indus river system and its all major and minor tributaries.