critically endangered species in india

IUCN Red List 2022 India | Critically endangered species in India 2022| Endangered Birds

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Critically Endangered Species in India

A total of 199 Species are under critically endangered species in India , IUCN RED List 2021. The number of species added in 2021 to the IUCN RED LIST Critically Endangered Species from INDIA is 20, Fourteen Animal Species and Six Plant Species. These update to IUCN RED LIST is done in two rounds, in round one 5 Species were added and in update two released on 4 Sep, 2021 Fifteen more species from India were added to IUCN RED LIST Critically Endangered Species. The Name of these 20 Species from India included in the IUCN RED LIST as Critically Endangered Species are as follows:

UPSC PYQ

You Can leave your Answers to these Questions in the comment section below.

Year 2022. Certain species of which one of the following organisms are well known as cultivators of

fungi?

  • (a) Ant
  • (b) Cockroach
  • (c) Crab 
  • (d) Spider

Year 2021. Which of the following have species that can establish a symbiotic relationship with other organisms?

  • 1. Cnidarians
  •  2. Fungi
  •  3. Protozoa

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  •  (a) 1 and 2 only
  •  (b) 2 and 3 only
  •  (c) 1 and 3 only
  •  (d) 1, 2 and 3

Year 2020. Which one of the following protected areas is well-known for the conservation of a sub-species of the Indian swamp deer (Barasingha) that thrives well on hard ground and is exclusively graminivorous?

  • (a) Kanha National Park
  • (b) Manas National Park
  • (c) Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary
  • (d) Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary

Year 2020. If a particular plant species is placed under Schedule VI of The Wildlife Protection Act,

1972, what is the implication?

  • (a) A licence is required to cultivate that plant
  • (b) Such a plant cannot be cultivated under any circumstances
  • (c) It is a Genetically Modified crop plant
  • (d) Such a plant is invasive and harmful to the ecosystem

Year 2019. Consider the following statements:

  1. Some species of turtles are herbivores
  2. Some species of fish are herbivores.
  3. Some species of marine mammals are herbivores
  4. Some species of snakes are viviparous

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  • (a) 1 and 3 only
  • (b) 2, 3 and 4 only
  • (c) 2 and 4 only
  • (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Year 2017. Due to some reasons if there is a huge fall in the population of a species of butterflies, what could be its likely consequence/consequences?

  1. Pollination of some plants could be adversely affected
  2. There could be a drastic increase in the fungal infection of some cultivated plants
  3. It could lead to a fall in the population of some species of wasps, spiders and birds

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  • (a) 1 only
  • (b) 2 and 3 only
  • (c) 1 and 3 only
  • (d) 1, 2 and 3

Year 2017. In India, if a species of tortoise is declared protected under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, what does it imply?

  • (a) It enjoys the same level of protection as tiger
  • (b) It no longer exists in the wild, a few individuals are under captive protection; and now it is impossible to prevent its extinction
  • (c) It is endemic to a particular region of India
  • (d) Both (b) and (c) stated above are correct in this context

Year 2016. Recently, our scientists have discovered a new and distinct species of banana plant which attains a height of about 11 metres and has orange-coloured fruit pulp. In which part of India has it been discovered?

  • (a) Andaman Islands
  • (b) Anaimalai Forests
  • (c) Maikal Hills
  • (d) Tropical rain forests of northeast

Year 2016. With reference to ‘Red Sanders’, sometimes seen in the news, consider the following statements:

  1. It is a tree species found in a part of South India
  2. It is one of the most important trees in the tropical rainforest areas of South India

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • (a) 1 only
  • (b) 2 only
  • (c) Both 1 and 2
  • (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Year 2015. With reference to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. IUCN is an organ of the United Nations and CITES is an international agreement between governments
  2. IUCN runs thousands of field projects around the world to better manage natural environments
  3. CITES is legally binding on the States that have joined it, but this Convention does not take the place of national laws

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  • (a) 1 only
  • (b) 2 and 3 only
  • (c) 1 and 3 only
  • (d) 1, 2 and 3

IUCN Red list India

Download HD Image of IUCN RED LIST 2021 Critically Endangered Spcies in India, Link at the end of article.

IUCN RED LIST 2021 India

Common NmaeScientific NameSpecies typeIUCN Status 2021
Assam Roofed TurtlePangshura sylhetensisANIMALIACritically Endangered
Asian Giant Softshell TurtlePelochelys cantoriiANIMALIACritically Endangered
Black Softshell TurtleNilssonia nigricansANIMALIACritically Endangered
Leith's Softshell TurtleNilssonia leithiiANIMALIACritically Endangered
Sand Tiger SharkCarcharias taurusANIMALIACritically Endangered
Rhinophis goweriRhinophis goweriANIMALIACritically Endangered
Ganges SharkGlyphis gangeticusANIMALIACritically Endangered
Bengal GuitarfishRhinobatos annandaleiANIMALIACritically Endangered
Tentacled Butterfly RayGymnura tentaculataANIMALIACritically Endangered
Smoothback GuitarfishRhinobatos lionotusANIMALIACritically Endangered
Shevaroy HilIs Earth SnakeUropeltis shorttiiANIMALIACritically Endangered
Triplophysa kashmirensisTriplophysa kashmirensisANIMALIACritically Endangered
Satara GeckoHemidactylus sataraensisANIMALIACritically Endangered
Shorttail WhiprayMaculabatis bineeshiANIMALIACritically Endangered
Kathalekan Marsh NutSemecarpus kathalekanensisPLANTAECritically Endangered
EeyakamHopea erosaPLANTAECritically Endangered
Madhuca diplostemonMadhuca diplostemonPLANTAECritically Endangered
Chiratta-anjiliDipterocarpus bourdilloniiPLANTAECritically Endangered
Machilus parvifloraMachilus parvifloraPLANTAECritically Endangered
Cryptocarya sheikelmudiyanaCryptocarya sheikelmudiyanaPLANTAECritically Endangered

Critically Endangered Species list is released by IUCN which contains Critically Endangered Species in India. Lets See in brief about IUCN first.

IUCN

  • IUCN is an NGO and it works with nations and other organisations NGOs, in the field of environment, especially for the conservation of Species Worldwide.
  • IUCN is World’s oldest Global Environmental Organisation.
  • IUCN releases Red List which is a detailed description of threats and present conditions of Species found in different parts of the world.
  • The most discussed part of the Red list is the category of Threatened species, which contains three sub types:
    • Critically endangered species.
    • Endangered species.
    • Vulnerable species.

IUCN Criteria for determining the Red List status of any species is shown in the fig. below:

crtically endangered species in india
crtically endangered species in india

Most Important Protected Areas

Elephant Reserves in IndiaBiodiversity hotspots in India
40 UNESCO World Heritage Sites IndiaCritically Endangered Species in India
75 Ramsar sites in IndiaMangrove sites in India
53 Tiger reserves in IndiaVulture in India

Download IUCN critically endangered species in India criteria

Critically Endangered Species Of India.

As per IUCN Official Website there are 12 critically endangered species of animals (Mammals) in India as of March 2021 , Which are as follows:( Refer to Official IUCN Website : Link at the Bottom of the Article )

critically endangered species in india

S.NoCritically Endangered Mammal Name
1Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat
2LARGE ROCK RAT
3Namdapha Flying Squirrel
4Nicobar Shrew
5Hangul
6Chinese Pangolin
7Jenkin's Shrew
8Andaman White-toothed Shrew
9Sumatran Rhinoceros
10Javan Rhinoceros
11Pygmy Hog
12Malabar Civet

Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat

Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat
Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat
  • Number of mature individuals
    • 150-200
  • Habitat and ecology
    • Shrubland, Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic)
  • Native Extant (resident)
  • Threats
    • Energy production & mining—Mining & quarrying
    • Biological resource use—Logging & wood harvesting
    • PollutionAgricultural & forestry effluents

LARGE ROCK RAT

LARGE ROCK RAT
LARGE ROCK RAT – critically endangered species in India
  • Habitat and ecology
    • Forest, Shrubland, Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
  • Native Extant (resident)
    • India (Tamil Nadu)
  • Threats
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Annual & perennial non-timber crops
      • Wood & pulp plantations
    • Energy production & mining
      • Mining & quarrying
    • Biological resource use
      • Logging & wood harvesting

Namdapha Flying Squirrel

Namdapha Flying Squirrel
Namdapha Flying Squirrel – critically endangered species in India
  • Habitat and ecology
    • Forest
  • Threats
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Annual & perennial non-timber crops
    • Biological resource use
      • Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals
      • Logging & wood harvesting
    • Geological events
      • Avalanches/landslides
    • Climate change & severe weather

Nicobar Shrew

Nicobar shrew
Nicobar shrew – critically endangered species in India
  • Habitat and ecology
    • Forest
  • Threats
    • Residential & commercial development
      • Housing & urban areas
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Annual & perennial non-timber crops
    • Biological resource use
      • Logging & wood harvesting
    • Geological events
      • Earthquakes/tsunamis
    • Climate change & severe weather
  • Native Extant (resident)
    • India (Nicobar Is.)

Hangul

hangul
hangul location Dachigam National Park
  • Number of mature individuals
    • 100-150
  • Habitat and ecology
    • Forest, Grassland
  • Threats
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Livestock farming & ranching
    • Biological resource use
      • Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals
    • Human intrusions & disturbance
  • Native Extant (resident)
    • India (Jammu-Kashmir)

Chinese Pangolin

pangolian
pangolian
  • Habitat and ecology
    • Forest, Shrubland, Grassland
  • Threats
    • Residential & commercial development
      • Housing & urban areas
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Annual & perennial non-timber crops
    • Energy production & mining
      • Mining & quarrying
    • Transportation & service corridors
      • Roads & railroads
    • Biological resource use
      • Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals
    • Geological events
      • Avalanches/landslides
    • Climate change & severe weather
      • Habitat shifting & alteration
  • Native Extant (resident)
    • Bangladesh; Bhutan; China; Hong Kong; India; Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Myanmar; Nepal; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Viet Nam

Jenkin’s Shrew

jenkin shrew
jenkin shrew
  • Habitat and ecology
    • Forest
  • Threats
    • Residential & commercial development
      • Housing & urban areas
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Annual & perennial non-timber crops
    • Biological resource use
      • Logging & wood harvesting
    • Geological events
      • Earthquakes/tsunamis
    • Climate change & severe weather
      • Storms & flooding
  • Native Extant (resident)
    • India (Andaman Is.)

Andaman White-toothed Shrew

andaman shrew
andaman shrew
  • Habitat and ecology
    • Forest
  • Threats
    • Residential & commercial development
      • Housing & urban areas
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Annual & perennial non-timber crops
    • Geological events
      • Earthquakes/tsunamis
    • Climate change & severe weather
      • Storms & flooding
  • Extant (resident)
    • India

Sumatran Rhinoceros

sumatran rhino
sumatran rhino
  • Number of mature individuals
    • 30
  • Habitat and ecology
    • Forest
  • Threats
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Annual & perennial non-timber crops
    • Biological resource use
      • Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals
      • Logging & wood harvesting
      • Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources
    • Human intrusions & disturbance
      • Work & other activities
    • Natural system modifications
      • Fire & fire suppression
    • Geological events
      • Volcanoes
      • Earthquakes/tsunamis
    • Climate change & severe weather
      • Droughts
  • Native Extant (resident)
    • Indonesia
  • Extinct
    • Bangladesh; Bhutan; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; India; Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Thailand; Viet Nam
  • Presence Uncertain
    • Myanmar

Javan Rhinoceros

Javan Rhinoceros
Javan Rhinoceros
  • Number of mature individuals-
    • 18
  • Habitat and ecology:
    • Forest
  • Threats
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Annual & perennial non-timber crops
    • Biological resource use
      • Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals
      • Logging & wood harvesting
  • Native Extant (resident)
    • Indonesia
  • Extinct
    • Bangladesh; Cambodia; China; India; Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia); Myanmar; Thailand; Viet Nam

Pygmy Hog

pygmy hog
pygmy hog – critically endangered species in India
  • HABITAT AND ECOLOGY
    • Grassland
  • THREATS
    • Residential & commercial development
      • Housing & urban areas
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Annual & perennial non-timber crops
      • Wood & pulp plantations
      • Livestock farming & ranching
    • Biological resource use
      • Logging & wood harvesting
    • Natural system modifications
      • Fire & fire suppression
      • Other ecosystem modifications
  • Extant (resident)

Malabar Civet

Malabar Civet
Malabar Civet – critically endangered species in India
  • NUMBER OF MATURE INDIVIDUALS
    • 249
  • HABITAT AND ECOLOGY
    • Forest, Wetlands (inland), Artificial/Terrestrial
  • THREATS
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Annual & perennial non-timber crops
      • Wood & pulp plantations
    • Energy production & mining
      • Renewable energy
    • Biological resource use
      • Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals
      • Gathering terrestrial plants
  • Possibly Extinct & Origin Uncertain
    • India

Endangered Birds in India

On June 10, 2021, Union Minister for Environment and Forests Dr. M.Veerappa Moily, in a written reply in Rajya Sabha, gave details of Critically Endangered Species of Birds in India. He stated– According to International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list of birds, the information contained in the IUCN Red list version 2013.2 indicates that 15 species of birds from India are critically endangered.

S. No.Critically Endangered Birds Common Name
1Baer's Pochard
2Forest Owlet
3Great Indian Bustard
4Bengal Florican
5Siberian Crane
6Spoon-billed Sandpiper
7Sociable Lapwing
8Jerdon's Courser
9White backed Vulture
10Red-headed Vulture
11White-bellied Heron
12Slender-billed Vulture
13Indian Vulture
14Himalavan Quail
15Pink-headed Duck
great indian bustard
great indian bustard – critically endangered species in India

Why are Birds Endangered

  • The primary reasons for the decline in the population of birds are:
    • loss, modification, fragmentation, and degradation of habitat, 
    • environmental contaminants, 
    • poaching, 
    • land-use changes, particularly the conversion of large areas to intensive crop cultivation, 
    • changes in cropping pattern due to numerous reasons, including 
      • implementation of irrigation schemes, 
      • increased pesticide usage and livestock grazing, 
    • high levels of disturbance, 
    • developmental activities like mining and hydel projects. 
    • Threats posed by infrastructure development, such as 
      • collisions with vehicles
      • power-lines and wind turbines 

Steps taken By government to save Endangered Birds

The Government of India took various steps for conservation of remaining habitats in wetlands, grasslands, and forests, and river line across the country, and species dependent on them are given below: 

  • Financial and Technical assistance under Centrally Sponsored Schemes is provided to States Governments to protect and manage protected areas and other forests. 
  • India is a signatory to various major international conventions for the conservation and management of wildlife, including endangered species of birds. These are,
    • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
    • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) 
    • Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)  
  • The Central Government has enacted the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972, to protect wildlife, including birds.
    • The Act provides for the creation of Protected Areas for the protection of wildlife. Also, it provides for punishment for hunting of specified fauna, including birds identified in the schedules I to IV thereof. 
    • Important habitats of birds have been notified as Protected Areas under the Wild Life Act 1972. 
  • Wetland (Conservation and Management)Rules 2010 have been framed to protect wetlands in the States, which are habitats of birds.
    • The Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Eco-System also assists the States in managing wetlands, including Ramsar sites
  • The Government of India established Wildlife Crime Control Bureau to control illegal wildlife trade, including endangered birds and their parts and products. 
  • Research and monitoring activities on birds are promoted by the Government through reputed research organizations, for example:
    • Wildlife Institute of India, 
    • Bombay Natural History Society and 
    • Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History 
  • The Indian Government has banned the veterinary use of diclofenac drugs that has caused a rapid population decline of Gyps vulture across the Indian Subcontinent. Conservation Breeding Programmes to conserve these vulture species have been initiated by the Bombay Natural History Society at
    • Pinjore (Haryana), 
    • Buxa (West Bengal) 
    • Rani, Guwahati (Assam)
iucn red list 2021
iucn red list 2021- critically endangered species in India

Download Critically endangered species in India

There are a number of critically endangered species in India. These animals and plants are in danger of becoming extinct in the near future if something is not done to save them.

The main threats to these critically endangered species in India come from habitat loss and poaching. Habitat loss occurs when forests are cleared for development or when wetlands are drained for agriculture. Poaching is when animals are killed illegally for their meat or their body parts.

Many of these critically endangered species in India are also threatened by climate change. As temperatures rise, their habitats will become less suitable for them and they will be forced to move to higher elevations. This could put them in conflict with humans who are living in those areas.

In conclusion, it is evident that many critically endangered species in India are facing an uphill battle to survive. While there are a number of steps that can be taken to help these animals, it will require cooperation from many different sectors of society. It is important that we all work together to protect these animals and their habitats, so that future generations will be able to enjoy their beauty and splendor.

unesco world heritage sites
unesco world heritage sites

Checkout the Latest 40 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India.

This was all about critically endangered species in India

To learn more about critically endangered species in India refer here Official IUCN Website Link

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