critically endangered species in india

Comprehensive list of Critically endangered species in India 2021| Endangered Birds

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Critically Endangered Species list is released by IUCN which contains Critically Endangered Species in India. Lets See in brief about IUCN first.

IUCN

  • IUCN is an NGO and it works with nations and other organisations NGOs, in the field of environment, especially for the conservation of Species Worldwide.
  • IUCN is World’s oldest Global Environmental Organisation.
  • IUCN releases Red List which is a detailed description of threats and present conditions of Species found in different parts of the world.
  • The most discussed part of the Red list is the category of Threatened species, which contains three sub types:
    • Critically endangered species.
    • Endangered species.
    • Vulnerable species.

IUCN Criteria for determining the Red List status of any species is shown in the fig. below:

crtically endangered species in india
crtically endangered species in india

Download IUCN critically endangered species in India criteria

Critically Endangered Species Of India.

As per IUCN Official Website there are 12 critically endangered species of animals (Mammals) in India as of March 2021 , Which are as follows:( Refer to Official IUCN Website : Link at the Bottom of the Article )

critically endangered species in india

S.NoCritically Endangered Mammal Name
1Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat
2LARGE ROCK RAT
3Namdapha Flying Squirrel
4Nicobar Shrew
5Hangul
6Chinese Pangolin
7Jenkin's Shrew
8Andaman White-toothed Shrew
9Sumatran Rhinoceros
10Javan Rhinoceros
11Pygmy Hog
12Malabar Civet

Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat

Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat
Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat
  • Number of mature individuals
    • 150-200
  • Habitat and ecology
    • Shrubland, Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic)
  • Native Extant (resident)
    • India (Karnataka)
  • Threats
    • Energy production & mining—Mining & quarrying
    • Biological resource use—Logging & wood harvesting
    • Pollution—Agricultural & forestry effluents

LARGE ROCK RAT

LARGE ROCK RAT
LARGE ROCK RAT
  • Habitat and ecology
    • Forest, Shrubland, Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
  • Native Extant (resident)
    • India (Tamil Nadu)
  • Threats
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Annual & perennial non-timber crops
      • Wood & pulp plantations
    • Energy production & mining
      • Mining & quarrying
    • Biological resource use
      • Logging & wood harvesting

Namdapha Flying Squirrel

Namdapha Flying Squirrel
Namdapha Flying Squirrel
  • Habitat and ecology
    • Forest
  • Threats
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Annual & perennial non-timber crops
    • Biological resource use
      • Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals
      • Logging & wood harvesting
    • Geological events
      • Avalanches/landslides
    • Climate change & severe weather
      • Storms & flooding

Nicobar Shrew

Nicobar shrew
Nicobar shrew
  • Habitat and ecology
    • Forest
  • Threats
    • Residential & commercial development
      • Housing & urban areas
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Annual & perennial non-timber crops
    • Biological resource use
      • Logging & wood harvesting
    • Geological events
      • Earthquakes/tsunamis
    • Climate change & severe weather
      • Storms & flooding
  • Native Extant (resident)
    • India (Nicobar Is.)

Hangul

hangul
hangul location Dachigam National Park
  • Number of mature individuals
    • 100-150
  • Habitat and ecology
    • Forest, Grassland
  • Threats
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Livestock farming & ranching
    • Biological resource use
      • Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals
    • Human intrusions & disturbance
      • War, civil unrest & military exercises
  • Native Extant (resident)
    • India (Jammu-Kashmir)

Chinese Pangolin

pangolian
pangolian
  • Habitat and ecology
    • Forest, Shrubland, Grassland
  • Threats
    • Residential & commercial development
      • Housing & urban areas
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Annual & perennial non-timber crops
    • Energy production & mining
      • Mining & quarrying
    • Transportation & service corridors
      • Roads & railroads
    • Biological resource use
      • Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals
    • Geological events
      • Avalanches/landslides
    • Climate change & severe weather
      • Habitat shifting & alteration
  • Native Extant (resident)
    • Bangladesh; Bhutan; China; Hong Kong; India; Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Myanmar; Nepal; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Viet Nam

Jenkin’s Shrew

jenkin shrew
jenkin shrew
  • Habitat and ecology
    • Forest
  • Threats
    • Residential & commercial development
      • Housing & urban areas
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Annual & perennial non-timber crops
    • Biological resource use
      • Logging & wood harvesting
    • Geological events
      • Earthquakes/tsunamis
    • Climate change & severe weather
      • Storms & flooding
  • Native Extant (resident)
    • India (Andaman Is.)

Andaman White-toothed Shrew

andaman shrew
andaman shrew
  • Habitat and ecology
    • Forest
  • Threats
    • Residential & commercial development
      • Housing & urban areas
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Annual & perennial non-timber crops
    • Geological events
      • Earthquakes/tsunamis
    • Climate change & severe weather
      • Storms & flooding
  • Extant (resident)
    • India

Sumatran Rhinoceros

sumatran rhino
sumatran rhino
  • Number of mature individuals
    • 30
  • Habitat and ecology
    • Forest
  • Threats
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Annual & perennial non-timber crops
    • Biological resource use
      • Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals
      • Logging & wood harvesting
      • Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources
    • Human intrusions & disturbance
      • Work & other activities
    • Natural system modifications
      • Fire & fire suppression
    • Geological events
      • Volcanoes
      • Earthquakes/tsunamis
    • Climate change & severe weather
      • Droughts
  • Native Extant (resident)
    • Indonesia
  • Extinct
    • Bangladesh; Bhutan; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; India; Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Thailand; Viet Nam
  • Presence Uncertain
    • Myanmar

Javan Rhinoceros

Javan Rhinoceros
Javan Rhinoceros
  • Number of mature individuals-
    • 18
  • Habitat and ecology:
    • Forest
  • Threats
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Annual & perennial non-timber crops
    • Biological resource use
      • Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals
      • Logging & wood harvesting
  • Native Extant (resident)
    • Indonesia
  • Extinct
    • Bangladesh; Cambodia; China; India; Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia); Myanmar; Thailand; Viet Nam

Pygmy Hog

pygmy hog
pygmy hog
  • HABITAT AND ECOLOGY
    • Grassland
  • THREATS
    • Residential & commercial development
      • Housing & urban areas
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Annual & perennial non-timber crops
      • Wood & pulp plantations
      • Livestock farming & ranching
    • Biological resource use
      • Logging & wood harvesting
    • Natural system modifications
      • Fire & fire suppression
      • Other ecosystem modifications
  • Extant (resident)
    • India (Assam)

Malabar Civet

Malabar Civet
Malabar Civet
  • NUMBER OF MATURE INDIVIDUALS
    • 249
  • HABITAT AND ECOLOGY
    • Forest, Wetlands (inland), Artificial/Terrestrial
  • THREATS
    • Agriculture & aquaculture
      • Annual & perennial non-timber crops
      • Wood & pulp plantations
    • Energy production & mining
      • Renewable energy
    • Biological resource use
      • Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals
      • Gathering terrestrial plants
  • Possibly Extinct & Origin Uncertain
    • India

Endangered Birds in India

On June 10, 2021, Union Minister for Environment and Forests Dr. M.Veerappa Moily, in a written reply in Rajya Sabha, gave details of Critically Endangered Species of Birds in India. He stated– According to International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list of birds, the information contained in the IUCN Red list version 2013.2 indicates that 15 species of birds from India are critically endangered.

S. No.Critically Endangered Birds Common Name
1Baer's Pochard
2Forest Owlet
3Great Indian Bustard
4Bengal Florican
5Siberian Crane
6Spoon-billed Sandpiper
7Sociable Lapwing
8Jerdon's Courser
9White backed Vulture
10Red-headed Vulture
11White-bellied Heron
12Slender-billed Vulture
13Indian Vulture
14Himalavan Quail
15Pink-headed Duck
great indian bustard
great indian bustard

Why are Birds Endangered

  • The primary reasons for the decline in the population of birds are:
    • loss, modification, fragmentation, and degradation of habitat, 
    • environmental contaminants, 
    • poaching, 
    • land-use changes, particularly the conversion of large areas to intensive crop cultivation, 
    • changes in cropping pattern due to numerous reasons, including 
      • implementation of irrigation schemes, 
      • increased pesticide usage and livestock grazing, 
    • high levels of disturbance, 
    • developmental activities like mining and hydel projects. 
    • Threats posed by infrastructure development, such as 
      • collisions with vehicles, 
      • power-lines and wind turbines 

Steps taken By government to save Endangered Birds

The Government of India took various steps for conservation of remaining habitats in wetlands, grasslands, and forests, and river line across the country, and species dependent on them are given below: 

  • Financial and Technical assistance under Centrally Sponsored Schemes is provided to States Governments to protect and manage protected areas and other forests. 
  • India is a signatory to various major international conventions for the conservation and management of wildlife, including endangered species of birds. These are,
    • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
    • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) 
    • Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)  
  • The Central Government has enacted the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972, to protect wildlife, including birds.
    • The Act provides for the creation of Protected Areas for the protection of wildlife. Also, it provides for punishment for hunting of specified fauna, including birds identified in the schedules I to IV thereof. 
    • Important habitats of birds have been notified as Protected Areas under the Wild Life Act 1972. 
  • Wetland (Conservation and Management)Rules 2010 have been framed to protect wetlands in the States, which are habitats of birds.
    • The Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Eco-System also assists the States in managing wetlands, including Ramsar sites. 
  • The Government of India established Wildlife Crime Control Bureau to control illegal wildlife trade, including endangered birds and their parts and products. 
  • Research and monitoring activities on birds are promoted by the Government through reputed research organizations, for example:
    • Wildlife Institute of India, 
    • Bombay Natural History Society and 
    • Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History 
  • The Indian Government has banned the veterinary use of diclofenac drugs that has caused a rapid population decline of Gyps vulture across the Indian Subcontinent. Conservation Breeding Programmes to conserve these vulture species have been initiated by the Bombay Natural History Society at
    • Pinjore (Haryana), 
    • Buxa (West Bengal) 
    • Rani, Guwahati (Assam)

Download Critically endangered species in India

This was all about critically endangered species in India

To learn more about critically endangered species in India refer here Official IUCN Website Link

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