This article is about the Nine National Parks in Andaman and Nicobar with Map. We will begin with an overview of Andaman and Nicobar islands, like facts about Andaman and Nicobar islands, Tribes in Andaman and Nicobar Islands and all other important facts from UPSC Exam point of View. Then looking into the Geography and History of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, we will discuss the Nine National Parks in Andaman and Nicobar Islands which includes. – The Campbell Bay National Park, Galathea National Park, Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park, Middle Button Island National Park, Mount Harriet National Park, North Button Island National Park, Rani Jhansi Marine National Park, Saddle Peak National Park, South Button Island National Park.
Table of Contents
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands Islands form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India to the west and Myanmar to the north and east.
Most of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands belong to India, and a few islands in the north of the archipelago, including the Coco Islands belong to Myanmar.
The Andaman Islands are home to the Sentinelese tribe among few others, who have had little contact with the outside world.
The Andaman Archipelago is an oceanic continuation of the Burmese Arakan Yoma range in the North and of the Indonesian Archipelago in the South.
It has 325 islands which cover an area of 6,408 sq. Km.
The climate is typical of tropical islands of similar latitude. It is always warm, but with sea-breezes. Rainfall in Andaman & Nicobar island is irregular, usually dry during the north-east monsoon, and very wet during the south-west monsoon.
In December 2018, the Government of India renamed three of the islands as a tribute to Subhas Chandra Bose.
● Ross Island was renamed Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Island.
● Neil Island as Shaheed Island.
● Havelock Island as Swaraj Island
|SNo||National Parks Andaman & Nicobar Islands||Year of Establishment||Area (km2)||District|
|1||Campbell Bay NP||1992||426.23||Nicobar|
|2||Galathea Bay NP||1992||110||Nicobar|
|3||Mahatama Gandhi Marine (Wandoor) NP||1983||281.5||Andaman|
|4||Middle Button Island NP||1987||0.44||Andaman|
|5||Mount Harriett NP||1987||46.62||Andaman|
|6||North Button Island NP||1987||0.44||Andaman|
|7||Rani Jhansi Marine NP||1996||256.14||Andaman|
|S||Saddle Peak NP||1987||32.54||Andaman|
|9||South Button Island NP||1987||0.03||Andaman|
On 17 Oct 2021, the Government of India renamed Mount Harriet, a historical tourist spot in the Andaman and Nicobar islands, as ‘Mount Manipur’.
- After the Anglo-Manipur War of 1891, several Manipuri warriors who had fought the Britishers, including Maharaja Kulachandra Dhwaja Singh, were exiled to the Andaman Islands. Since the cellular jail – Kalapani, was yet to be built, they were kept on Mount Harriet, a hillock in now the Ferragunj tehsil of South Andaman district.
- According to Manipur State Archives, 23 men, including King Kulachandra and his brothers, were transported for life to the Andaman Island. While some died over there, Kulachandra was released and shifted to other place before his death.
- The 23 warriors are considered war heroes in Manipur. So Mount Harriet is an important place of the Anglo-Manipur War of 1891.
Volcanoes in Andaman and Nicobar
- Barren Island, Andaman Islands It is India’s only remaning active volcano now. Barren Island volcano became active again in March, 1991. A second phase of eruptions started in 1995. Last time it erupted in 2017
- Narcondam, Andaman Islands
- Baratang, Andaman Islands
Volcanoes in other parts of India:
- Deccan Traps, Maharashtra
- Dhinodhar Hills, Gujarat
- Dhosi Hill, Haryana
Basic Facts about Andaman and Nicobar
- Established: 1 November 1956
- Capital: Port Blair
- Number of District: 3
- High court: Calcutta High Court
- Lok Sabha Seats: 1
- Rajya Sabha Seats : 0
As of the 2011 Census of India, the population of the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands was 379944. The languages spoken in these islands include Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Punjabi, Marathi, Kannada, Oriya, Gujarati, Karen. The common language is Hindi.
Tribes in Andaman and Nicobar Islands
- Great Andamanese
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Details
- The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are also known by the name of the Emerald Islands.
- The Andaman and Nicobar Islands make an arcuate curve, convex to the west.
- The Great Nicobar is the largest island and is the southernmost. It is at a distance of 147 km from Indonesia’s Sumatra island.
- The Andaman Islands hosts one of the world’s most extensive mangrove ecosystems. Due to their long isolation, these groups of islands have a significant diversity of flora and fauna with a high level of endemism.
- Andaman and Nicobar Islands were formed due to the collision between the Indian Plate and Burma Minor Plate.
- Duncan passage separates Little Andaman from South Andaman.
- Port Blair, the capital of Andaman Nicobar Islands is in the South Andaman.
- Most of these islands are formed by tertiary sandstone, limestone and shale
- The Barren Island and Narcondam island north of Port Blair, are volcanic islands. These are the only active volcanoes in India.
- Ninety per cent of the Andaman area is reserved or protected area, of which 36% is tribal reserves.
- The entire Nicobar group is a tribal reserve and has four wildlife sanctuaries, two national parks and one biosphere reserve.
- The Grand Channel is between the Great Nicobar islands and Sumatra islands of Indonesia.
- The Coco Strait is between the North Andaman islands and Coco Islands of Myanmar.
- Andaman islands are known for the largest and rarest species of crab called the Giant Robber Crab. It is powerful, can climb the coconut trees and break the hard shell of the fruit.
- There are 572 islands in the territory. 38 are permanently inhabited.
- The islands extend between 6° to 14° North latitudes.
- The Andaman Islands are separated from the Nicobar group of Islands by the Ten Degree Channel, which is approximately 150 km wide.
- The highest point of the island group is located in North Andaman Island –Saddle Peak at 732 m.
- Indira Point at 6°45’10″N and 93°49’36” E at the southern tip of the southernmost island, Great Nicobar, is the southernmost point of India.
- From 800 to 1200 CE, the Tamil Chola dynasty created an empire that eventually extended from southeastern peninsular India to parts of Malaysia.
- Rajendra Chola I (1014 to 1042 CE) took over the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and maintained them as a strategic naval base to launch a naval expedition against the Srivijaya empire (a Buddhist-Malay empire based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia).
- The Cholas named the island as Ma-Nakkavaram, as mentioned in the Thanjavur inscription of 1050 AD.
- In 1756, the Nicobar Islands were made a Danish colony.
- In 1858 the Britishers set up their colony at Port Blair. The primary motive was to set up a penal colony for convicts from the Indian subcontinent. The colony came to include the infamous Kala Pani jail or Cellular Jail.
- After the end of British rule, The Kala Pani gave away to Become a beautiful Island. 17 May 1859 was another major day for Andaman. The “Battle of Aberdeen” was fought between the Great Andamanese Tribe and the British. Today, a memorial paying tribute to the people who lost their lives stands in the Andaman Water sports complex.
- It became a part of India in 1950 and was declared a union territory of India in 1956.
Flora in Andaman & Nicobar
- Mostly tropical forest, with mangroves on the coast.
- Forests in Andaman & Nicobar islands are mostly evergreen, but there are areas of the deciduous forest also as in North Andaman, Middle Andaman, Baratang and parts of South Andaman Island.
- The Middle Andamans have mostly moist deciduous forests.
- North Andamans consists of wet evergreen forests, with plenty of woody climbers.
- The South Andaman forests have large epiphytic vegetation, mostly ferns and orchids.
- The Andaman and Nicobar Islands forests are largely unspoiled, despite increased logging activities due to the fast-growing population driven by immigration from the Indian mainland.
- On a general note, Andaman and Nicobar Islands contain 200 or more timber-producing species of trees, out of which about 30 varieties are considered to be commercial.
- The Major commercial timber here is Gurjan and Padauk.
Fauna in Andaman & Nicobar
The Andaman Islands are home to several animals, many of them endemic. It includes mammals and birds.
The islands also have several endemic reptiles, toads and frogs, such as the South Andaman krait and Andaman water monitor.
There is a sanctuary for saltwater crocodiles, 72 km from Havelock Island.
National Parks in Andaman and Nicobar
The Nine National Parks in Andaman and Nicobar are as follows- The Campbell Bay National Park, Galathea National Park, Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park, Middle Button Island National Park, Mount Harriet National Park, North Button Island National Park, Rani Jhansi Marine National Park, Saddle Peak National Park, South Button Island National Park.
Saddle Peak National Park
- The Saddle Peak National Park consists of a peak of height 737 meters above MSL and is the highest point in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
- The Saddle Peak National Park is shaped like a double-humped saddle, hence it is named so.
- The Park is along the eastern coast of North Andaman Island.
- The eastern boundary of the Saddle Peak National Park is a long and rocky beach.
- The Park consists of a freshwater pool, from which water is supplied to Diglipur.
- The Saddle Peak National Park have evergreen forests and is thick and luxuriant.
- 10 perennial streams flow through the Saddle Peak National Park along with 132 seasonal streams.
- Forest types of Saddle Peak National Park include Tropical Evergreen, Moist Deciduous, Semi-evergreen. With species as Canebrake and Wet Bamboo.
FAUNA of Saddle Peak National Park:
Mammals of the Saddle Peak National Park include the endemic Andaman Horseshoe Bat.
The introduced Himalayan Palm Civet,
Saltwater Crocodile and Andaman Water Monitor Lizard are found but it is difficult to estimate their density.
The Campbell Bay National Park
- The Campbell Bay National Park is a part of the Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve.
- Area: 426 Sq. km
- Location: in the northern part of Great Nicobar.
- Flora: Tropical evergreen forest, tree fern, and orchids.
- Fauna: Saltwater crocodile, Nicobar tree shrew, Nicobar Megapode. Reticulated python and the Giant Robber Crab, Fruit Bat, Giant leatherback turtle, Crab Eating Macaque, Nicobar Serpent Eagle, Andaman Wild pig, Malayan box turtle, Nicobar Pigeon, White Bellied Sea Eagle, Palm Civet, Fruit Bat.
Galathea National Park
- Area of Galathea national park: 110 square kilometres,
- Galathea national park was gazetted as a National Park in 1992.
- Galathea national park is part of the Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve, which also includes the larger Campbell Bay National Park, both are separated by a 12-km forest buffer zone.
- Flora of Galathea national park- tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests,
- Fauna of Galathea national park- giant robber crab, megapode and Nicobar pigeon.
Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park
- Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park Area: 280 sq km
- It comprises 15 Islands of mangrove creeks, tropical rainforests and reefs supporting 50 types of coral.
- The marine park’s snorkelling sites at Jolly Buoy and Red Skin islands are popular.
- Fauna: water-monitor, lizard, wild boar, sea snakes, turtles, coral reefs, colourful fishes, molluscs, shells, starfish, turtles, salt-water crocodile, White-Bellied Sea Eagle, Parakeets, Andaman Teal, Heron, Terns, Waders, Swifts.
Mount Harriet National Park
- On 17 Oct 2021, the Government of India renamed Mount Harriet, a historical tourist spot in the Andaman and Nicobar islands, as ‘Mount Manipur’.
- The Mount Harriet Island National Park is located in Ferrargunj tehsil of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
- The park covers about 46.62 km2.
- Fauna of Mount Harriet National Park: saltwater crocodiles, turtles and robber crab, Andaman wild pigs.
The Rani Jhansi Marine National Park (RJMNP)
- The Rani Jhansi Marine National Park is located within Ritchie’s Archipelago.
- Area: 256.14 square kilometres.
- Rani Jhansi National Park is 14 km northeast of the South Andaman Islands and southeast of Middle Andaman Island.
- The natural habitats of the park include lagoons, coral reefs, beaches, lowland evergreen rain forests, semi-evergreen rain forests and mangrove forests.
- Rani Jhansi National Park’s Climate is humid, the typical tropical coastal climate because of its proximity to the equator and the sea.
- Rainfall is very heavy, up to 3,800 mm annual average, due to the southwest and northeast monsoons.
- Rani Jhansi National Park was founded in 1996 and commemorates Rani Lakshmibai, the Rani of Jhansi.
- Over 80 species of corals are reported from just one area of the Park.
- The Rani Jhansi National Park is extremely rich in coral reef fauna.
Four species of sea turtles are found, namely the Olive Ridley, Green Turtle, Hawksbill Turtle and Leatherback Turtle.
North Button Island National Park
Fauna – dugong, dolphin, water monitor, lizard.
Middle Button Island National Park
Middle Button Island National Park is situated close to Point Blair.
The total area of the park is about 64 square kilometres.
Flora: deciduous forests
Fauna: spotted deer, monitor, lizard and marine species.
South Button Island National Park
Fauna- dugong, dolphin, water monitor, lizard.
This was the brief about National Parks in Andaman and Nicobar islands
How many national parks are there in Andaman and Nicobar Islands?
As per Government of india, there are total Nine National Parks in National Parks in Andaman and Nicobar Islands in 2021. Namely- The Campbell Bay National Park, Galathea National Park, Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park, Middle Button Island National Park, Mount Harriet National Park, North Button Island National Park, Rani Jhansi Marine National Park, Saddle Peak National Park, South Button Island National Park.
Which is the highest peak in Andaman and Nicobar Islands?
The Saddle Peak National Park consists of a peak of height 737 meters above MSL and is the highest point in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Where is Campbell Bay National Park located?
The Campbell Bay National Park is a part of the Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve.
Area: 426 Sq. km
Location: in the northern part of Great Nicobar.
Where is Mount Harriett National Park situated?
The Mount Harriet Island National Park is located in Ferrargunj tehsil of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
The park covers about 46.62 km2.