Assam is a state in Northeast India with more than 3.12 Cr population, There are seven majestic national park in Assam. The state has the third most National Parks in India, after the 12 in Madhya Pradesh and 9 in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The state has a rich biodiversity, with more than 35% of its land covered in forests. The state is also home to many endangered species, including the tiger, rhinoceros, and elephant.
National park in Assam
The Two Latest National Parks in Assam added in June 2021 are Dihing Patkai National Park and Raimona National Park. Orang National Park, Dibru Saikhowa national park, Kaziranga national park, Manas national park, Nameri national park are the five other National Park in Assam. Learn about each one of them in detail below.
Year 2020. Which one of the following protected areas is well-known for the conservation of a sub-species of the Indian swamp deer (Barasingha) that thrives well on hard ground and is exclusively graminivorous? (a) Kanha National Park (b) Manas National Park (c) Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary (d) Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary Year 2020. Which of the following are the most likely places to find the musk deer in its natural habitat? 1.Askot Wildlife Sanctuary 2.Gangotri National Park 3.Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary 4.Manas National Park Select the correct answer using the code given below: (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 3 and 4 only (d) 1 and 4 only Year 2019. Which one of the following National Parks lies completely in the temperate alpine zone? (a) Manas National Park (b) Namdapha National Park (c) Neora Valley National Park (d) Valley of Flowers National Park Year 2015. Which one of the following pairs of States of India indicates the easternmost and westernmost State? (a) Assam and Rajasthan (b) Arunachal Pradesh and Rajasthan (c) Assam and Gujarat (d) Arunachal Pradesh and Gujarat
Let’s learn about the assam national parks one by one; the latest two addition in the National Parks in Assam are Dihing National Park and Raimona National Park.
The Dihing Patkai National Park in Assam –
Dihing Patkai National Park Assam
- It was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 2004
- Dehing Patkai National Park in Assam is also a major Elephant Reserve, which spreads across the coal- and oil-rich districts of Upper Assam (Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts).
- Dehing Patkai National Park is also known as the Jeypore Rainforest.
- Dehing river flows through the National Park, and Patkai hills are the foothills of the Park.
- The oldest refinery in Asia is located in Digboi, and the open cast coal mining at Lido is situated near the Park.
- 234 sq. km park covering Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts is also the last remaining stretches of the Assam Valley’s tropical wet evergreen forests.
- Rare animals are found here, such as Chinese pangolin, flying fox, gaur, serow, Malayan giant squirrels, wild pig, sambar and barking deer.
- It is the only National Park in India that houses seven different species of wild cats – tiger, leopard, clouded leopard, leopard cat, golden cat, jungle cat and marbled cat.
- Assamese macaque, a primate included in the red list of Near Threatened species, is found in the forest.
- The highest concentration of the rare endangered White Winged Wood Duck resides here.
- Deciduous rainforest interspersed with semi-evergreen forest.
The Raimona National Park in Assam
Raimona National Park
- Lies in Kokrajhar district, of the Bodoland Territorial Region (BTR) in the lower Assam
- Raimona national park in Assam encompasses 422 sq km.
- Phipsoo wildlife sanctuary of Bhutan to its north, Buxa tiger reserve of West Bengal lies to its west and the Manas national park to its east.
- The area of the Park includes the northern part of the notified Ripu Reserve Forest, which forms the buffer to the Manas National Park.
- It is bounded by tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the Sonkosh river on the west and the Saralbhanga river on the east. The Pekua river makes Raimona national park’s southern boundary.
- Raimona national park shares contiguous forests patches with Phipsoo Wildlife Sanctuary and Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park of Bhutan; together, they create a transboundary conservation area of more than 2,400 sq km.
Flora and Fauna
- The most famous endemic species in the Park is Golden Langur, also named the mascot of the Bodoland region.
- Other notable species of the Park are-
- Asian elephant, Royal Bengal tiger, Clouded leopard, Indian gaur, Wild water buffalo, Spotted deer, Hornbill,
- More than 150 species of butterflies,
- One hundred seventy species of birds, including the white-bellied heron.
The Manas National Park in Assam
Manas National Park
- Manas National Park in Assam is located in the foothills of the Himalayas in the bhabar area of western Assam.
- According to the National Tiger Conservation Authority’s (NTCA) most recent camera trapping assessment 2022, the Manas Tiger Reserve includes 52 adult tigers and eight cubs and has 2.4 tigresses for every tiger.
- It spans the Manas river and is joined on the north by Bhutan’s Royal Manas National Park.
- Manas National Park has six national and international designations.
- World Heritage Site UNESCO
- National Park
- Tiger Reserve
- Biosphere Reserve (national)
- Elephant Reserve
- Important Bird Area
- Manas National Park provides the highest legal protection to its species under the strong legislative framework of the provisions of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972 and Indian Forest Act, 1927/Assam Forest Regulation 1891.
- Manas was initially a game reserve since 1928
- Manas became a Tiger Reserve in 1974 (Learn About all 51 Tiger Reserves in India with Map)
- Manas became a World Heritage Site in 1985,
- It became Biosphere Reserve in 1989.
- Manas was declared a National Park in 1990 with an area of 500 sq. km.
- Manas is also the core area of the Chirang Ripu Elephant Reserve. (Learn About all 32 Elephants Reserves in India with Map)
- To the North of the Manas National Park is the international border of Bhutan created by the imposing Bhutan hills.
- Manas National Park spreads on either side of the majestic Manas river. The tumultuous river flows down the mountains in the backdrop of hills covered with forests coupled with the alluvial grasslands and tropical evergreen forests.
- The monsoon and river system in the Manas National Park forms four principal geological habitats:
- Bhabar savannah
- Terai tract
- riverine tracts
- The dynamic ecosystem of the Manas National Park support broadly three types of vegetation:
- semi-evergreen forests,
- mixed moist and dry deciduous forests
- Alluvial grasslands.
- In the Manas National Park, the Dry Deciduous forests represent an early stage in succession that is constantly renewed by floods and is replaced by moist deciduous forests as we move away from watercourses, which in turn are replaced by semi-evergreen climax forests.
- The vegetation of Manas National Park has tremendously high regenerating and self-sustaining capabilities due to the high fertility of the soil.
- The Manas National Park shelters more than 22 endangered species, designated as Schedule 1 species in the Wildlife Protection Act and enjoy the highest level of protection in the country.
- The Manas National Park provides critical and viable habitats for rare and endangered species,
- Greater one-horned rhino,
- swamp deer,
- Pygmy hog
- Bengal florican.
- Other Noteworthy species found in Manas are
- clouded leopard,
- sloth bear
- The wild buffalo population in Manas National Park is probably the only pure strain of this species still found in India.
- Endemic species of the Manas National Park are
- pygmy hog,
- hispid hare and
- golden langur
- The Endangered Bengal florican.
The Kaziranga national park in assam –
Kaziranga National Park
- Kaziranga National Park in Assam in the north-eastern region of India, Covering 429.96 Sq. Km. area located in the State of Assam represents one of the last unmodified natural areas.
- The Kaziranga National Park has one of India’s highest density of tigers and has been declared a Tiger Reserve since 2007. (Learn About all 51 Tiger Reserves in India with Map)
- Kaziranga National Park area is the single largest and undisturbed area lying in the Brahmaputra Valley floodplain.
- The meandering of the Brahmaputra River creates spectacular examples of riverine and fluvial lands in this vast area.
- This area comprises wet alluvial tall grassland, scattered with many broad, shallow pools fringed with vegetation patches of deciduous to semi-evergreen woodlands.
- Riverbank erosion by the Brahmaputra river results in sedimentation and formation of new lands as well as new water-bodies
- Succession between grasslands and woodlands in these newly formed sedimented lands represents outstanding examples of significant, continuous, dynamic ecological and biological processes.
- Two-thirds of the Kaziranga National Park area is under Wet alluvial grasslands, which are maintained by annual flooding and burning.
Kaziranga National Park flora consists of wet alluvial tall grassland interspersed with a large number of broad, shallow pools fringed with vegetation of deciduous to semi-evergreen woodlands.
- Kaziranga National Park is a fine example of wildlife refuges in the world.
- Kaziranga National Park’s contribution and efforts in protecting the Indian one-horned rhinoceros from the brink of extinction in the 20th century to now having the single largest population of one-horned rhinoceros species is a remarkable conservation achievement.
- The park is located at the juncture of the Australasia and Indo-Asian flyway, which means that the park’s wetlands play a major role in conserving globally threatened migratory bird species.
- The Kaziranga National Park also harbours significant populations of other threatened species, including
- Elephants, (Learn About all 32 Elephants Reserves in India with Map)
- Wild water buffalo
- eastern swamp deer,
- Sambar deer,
- hog deer,
- capped langur,
- hoolock gibbon and
- Sloth bear.
- It is an important area for migratory birds.
- Various aquatic species, including the Endangered Ganges dolphin, are also found in some closed oxbow lakes.
The Dibru Saikhowa national park in assam –
Dibru Saikhowa National Park
- Dibru Saikhowa National Park in Assam is both a National Park and a Biosphere Reserve, lying on the south bank of the river Brahmaputra in the extreme east in the Tinsukia district of state Assam in India.
- Dibru Saikhowa National Park is part of a large river island, hemmed by the Brahmaputra, Lohit and Dibru rivers.
- The park is bounded by the Brahmaputra and Lohit Rivers in the north and the Dibru river in the south.
- The Dibru Saikhowa National Park have a tropical monsoon climate with a hot and wet summer and cool and dry winter.
- It mainly consists of
- moist mixed semi-evergreen forests,
- moist mixed deciduous forests,
- Dibru Saikhowa National Park is the largest Salix swamp forest in north-eastern India.
- A famous sacred tree in Dibru Saikhowa National Park is Kekjori, a tree whose branches grow over a large area. The local population treat this tree as sacred and do not cut its branches.
- Dibru Saikhowa National Park is famed for its Feral horses,
- Other notable species found in the Dibru Saikhowa National Park are
- Slow Loris,
- Assamese Macaque,
- Rhesus Macaque,
- Barking Deer,
- Water Buffalo,
- It is also identified as an Important Bird Area (IBA); some notable Avifauna are
The Orang National Park in Assam
Orang National Park
- The Orang National Park in Assam has been officially renamed the Rajiv Gandhi Orang National Park.
- Orang National Park has an area of 78.80 sq. km.
- In 1915, Orang forest was declared a Game Reserve.
- The Orang forest was declared a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1985
- Orang was later declared as a National Park in 1999.
- The Orang National Park is situated on the north bank of the Brahmaputra river in the Darrang & Sonitpur districts of Assam
- The Pachnoi river and the Dhansiri rivers flow along the eastern and western boundaries of Orang National Park, respectively. Both these rivers are tributaries of the Brahmaputra.
- The terrain of Orang National Park is flat, being the floodplain of these rivers.
- Two different alluvial terraces are found in Orang National Park:
- the lower areas of Orang are of more recent origin along the river Brahmaputra
- the older upper alluvial of Orang is in its north
- Both are separated by a high bank traversing the National Park from east to west.
- Orang was earlier a pure alluvial grassland, probably maintained by grazing and fire by villagers.
- At one time, Orang was one of the finest representatives of natural wet, alluvial grasslands of the floodplains of the Brahmaputra river (much like Kaziranga).
- Even now, more than 60% of the Park is under grasses
- Natural forest constitutes only 2.6%, while planted forest covers 13.6% of this Park.
- Waterbodies (beels) and swamps constitute about 12% of the area.
- Orang National Park is an important habitat for the Indian One-horned Rhinoceros and Tigers. (Learn About all 51 Tiger Reserves in India with Map)
- Mainly established to save the highly endangered Rhinoceros, the grasslands of the Park also support healthy populations of the
- Swamp Francolin,
- Bengal Florican,
- Lesser Adjutant
- Pallas’s Fish-Eagle
- AVIFAUNA: Orang National Park is one of the most important sites for birds of wet, tall grasslands of the Indo-Gangetic plains. Almost all species of conservation concern are found in this small National Park of nearly 8,000 ha.
- OTHER KEY FAUNA: Orang National Park was declared to protect the Rhinoceros. Between 50-60 rhinos are found here, despite intensive poaching pressure.
- Other notable species in Orang National Park are:
- A healthy population of Tiger
- Hog Deer,
- Wild Pig
- This small area also has a small population of wild Asiatic Elephants.
- Gangetic Dolphin also occurs in the rivers.
- some of the small mammals of the Park are
- Chinese Pangolin
- Chinese Porcupine
- Small Civet
- Jungle Cat
- Smooth Indian Otter
- Rufous-tailed Hare
- The Swamp Deer population was exterminated by 1972 when license hunting prevailed.
- Old records also show the existence of Hispid Hare, but it is not found in Orang now.
- Pygmy Hog, another highly endangered species, was introduced in 1976 rather unsuccessfully.
- Turtles found in Orang National Park are
- Indian Tent Turtle
- Brown Roof Turtle
- Malayan Box Turtle
- Eastern Hill Terrapin
- Spotted Black Terrapin
- Indian Soft-shelled Turtle
- All these are listed in the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972.
Nameri National Park in Assam
Nameri National Park
- Nameri National Park in Assam is located in the Sonitpur district, in northern Assam,
- Nameri National Park also has the designation of Tiger reserve under Project Tiger(Learn About all 51 Tiger Reserves in India with Map)
- Nameri lies on the interstate border between Assam and Arunachal Pradesh.
- Nameri used to be part of the Naduar Reserve Forest before becoming a National Park.
- The Jia-Bhareli river flow through the Nameri National Park along with its tributaries:
- The Nameri river,
- Upper Dikorai river
- Bor Dikorai river
- Snow-capped Himalayan peaks are visible on clear winter days from Nameri National Park.
- Pakke (Pakhui) Wildlife Sanctuary across the border in Arunachal Pradesh, which is about 86,200 ha, adds to the protection level provided to the species in the park. Together they form a large contiguous wilderness for many species.
- The topography in Nameri National Park is a gently sloping plain, typical of Bhabar and Terai. Towards the north of the park, small hills of the Arunachal Himalaya are seen.
- The Nameri National Park is mostly forested, and grassland is found along the rivers.
- There are several pools within the Nameri National Park.
- Nameri National Park vegetation can be classified into eight distinct types:
- Moist Evergreen
- Moist Semi-evergreen
- Deciduous Forest
- Mixed forests
- Degraded forests
- Riverine forest
- Cultivated land.
- Moist Semi-evergreen Forest in the park covers about 160 Sq. Km. followed by grasslands in 15.7 Sq. Km.
- The evergreen forest in the park is dominated by
- Duabanga Grandiflora
- Mesua ferea
- Nameri National Park is home to various globally threatened birds and mammals.
- The most secure population of the endangered species White-winged Duck is found here on the north bank of the Brahmaputra river.
- Nameri National Park is famous for its population of Asian elephants and tigers.
- Nameri National Park, due to its location and climate, is considered an important site for the long-term protection of these mammals. Therefore, the Project Tiger and the Project Elephant are funding for the management of Nameri National Park.
- Hog Deer
- Barking Deer
- Jungle Cat
- Leopard Cat
- Golden Jackal
- Large Indian Civet
- Small Indian Civet
- Good numbers of Otters are found in the stream and rivers, wherever fishing is prohibited.
- The endemic Assam Roofed Terrapin was also reported.
- Keeled Box Turtle present in evergreen hill forest streams of northeast India and East Asia is also found in Nameri National Park.
- AVIFAUNA: Nameri National Park is very rich in avifauna.
- Some of the notable among a large number of threatened species and biome species of avifauna found in the park are:
- Sultan Tit
- Greater Necklaced Laughingthrush
- Grey Peacock Pheasant
- Himalayan Flameblack
- Masked Finfoot
- Darjeeling Woodpecker
- Slaty Blue Flycatcher
- White-throated Redstart
- Nepal House Martin
- White-throated Laughingthrush
- Yellow-bellied Flowerpecker
- Stripe-breasted Woodpecker
- Golden-throated Barbet
- Asian Emerald Cuckoo
- Orange-bellied Leafbird
- Grey Treepie
- Maroon Oriole
- Black-winged Cuckoo Shrike
- Rosy Minivet
- Green Cochoa
- Black-chinned Yuhina
- Black-throated Sunbird
- Streaked Spiderhunter
- Rufous-throated Partridge
In conclusion, it is evident that the national parks in Assam is a vital part of the ecosystem and must be preserved. The villagers living near the park must be educated on the importance of the park and how their actions can impact its future. Additionally, more needs to be done to protect the park from poachers and illegal logging. Finally, tourists and visitors should be encouraged to visit the park to help support its preservation.
This was all about national park in Assam.
Official Forest Department Website of Assam