The national park in Maharashtra are six in number. This article consists of the national park in Maharashtra map along with their details. We will also see the basic description of State of Maharashtra here: its forest types, climate, Geology and Rivers.
- Location Of Maharashtra : The state of Maharashtra lies between 15°32′ to 22°02′ N latitude and 72°36′ to 80°54′ E longitude and is the third-largest state of India with an area of 3,07,714 sq km constituting 9.36% of India’s total geographic area.
- Boundaries of Maharashtra : The Maharashtra state is bounded by the states of Gujarat and union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli on the northwest, Madhya Pradesh on the north, Chhattisgarh on the northeast, Andhra Pradesh in the east, Karnataka and Goa on the south, and the Arabian Sea on the west.
- Population of Maharashtra : As per the 2011 census records the population of the state is 11,23,72,972 with a density of 365 persons per sq km. In this state, 45.23% of people are living in urban areas whereas 54.77% are living in rural areas. ( Refer to the national park in maharashtra map )
Forest in Maharashtra
- In Maharashtra, 20.8% of the area is comprised of forest land whereas 58% area is under agricultural use and the remaining 21.2% is under non-agricultural and non-forest areas.
- The actual forest cover is 15.4% of state area of which about 10% is dense forest cover and the remaining 5.4% is open tree cover.
- Only 0.04% of the state area has a mangrove forest and about 2% area has a scrub forest.
- Only 4% of the State area is considered as pastures and other grazing lands.
- Extensive tracts of thick forests are still present in the Amravati and Nagpur regions and some patches in the Northern Western Ghats.
National Park in Maharashtra
|S.No||National Park||District||Area Sq.Km.||Notification Year||Forest|
|1||Sanjay Gandhi NP||Mumbai & Thane||86.96||1950/1983||Southern mixed to moist deciduous, semi-evergreen, mangrove scrub forest and very moist teak|
|2||Tadoba NP||Chandrapur||116.55||1955||Southern dry mixed deciduous, dry Teak|
|3||Nawegaon NP||Gondia||133.88||1975||Southern dry mixed decidous, tropical secondary scrub.|
|4||Pench NP||Nagpur||255.12||1975||Southern dry mixed deciduous, dry decidous scrub & dry Teak|
|5||Chandoli NP||Junction of Sangli, Satara, Kolhapur & Ratnagiri||308.97||1985||Sub tropical hill forest; semi-evergreen & southern moist mixed-deciduous forest|
|6||Gugamal NP||Amravati||361.28||1987||Southern mixed deciduous forest & dry Teak|
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Sanjay Gandhi National Park
- This forest area now known as Sanjay Gandhi National Park was initially notified as Protected Forest under the Indian Forest Act, 1927 and was first protected by the Maharashtra State Forest Department in 1939, though it did not become a National Park until 1950.
- The formation of National Park was majorly done by piecing together privately owned land. The total area of the Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SNGP) today is 103.09 sq.km. and Mumbai (the second largest metropolis in the world) is the only city that encompasses a National Park. ( Refer to the national park in maharashtra map )
- It is one of the largest National Parks occurring within city limits in Asia and an Important Bird Areas (IBA) of the State.
- The two lakes within the SNGP, Vihar and Tulsi lakes are recharged by rainfall. These two lakes have high hydrological importance as they are used to supply water to the Mumbai.
- Dahisar, Rewat, and Laxmi Rivers form the major sources of drainage.
- The National Park’s current area of 103.09 sq.km. is divided into three ranges,
- Krishnagiri Upavan,
- SGNP and
- Krishnagiri Upavan is the recreational area and is the smallest range in the SNGP and covers an area of approximately 5.88 sq.km.
- The SGNP and Yeur ranges cover a much larger area of approximately 38.57 sq.km. and 58.64 sq.km., respectively.
- The two lakes of the park, Tulsi and Vihar, which cover an area of approximately 8.5 sq.km.
- The National Park can be divided into two other areas called the Borivali area and the Thane area. The Borivali area consists of around 44.45 sq.km. and the Thane area covers approximately 58.64 sq.km.
Geography & Geology
- Sanjay Gandhi National Park is an island ecosystem and due to human disturbance and interferences, the animals are in a constant conflict with man here.
- As The National Park is engulfed on three sides by the 2 megacities. Its high levels of ecroachments lead to incidences of man-animal conflict.
- The growing human casualties in attacks by leopards of the Sanjay Gandhi National Park highlights the increasing urban pressures on the park.
- Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP) consists mainly of basic lava flows.
- Basic lava flows consist of basalt and is called basic since they contain less than 45 percent of free silica.
- This type of geology gives the SGNP’s terrain an undulating topography of hills, valleys, lakes, and open areas.
- The undulating topography forms ideal catchments for the Powai, Vihar, and Tulsi lakes.
- The Bassein (Vasai) Creek divides SGNP into the northern (Nagla) and southern blocks.
- SGNP’s highest peak rises to 468 mt. and is found near Kanheri Caves
- Leopard, Barking Deer, Rock Gecko, Indian Chameleon, Common Sand Boa, Saw scaled Viper, Skipper Frog.
- Birds (Ospray), reptiles (marsh crocodile and Indian monitor) are listed under Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 are found in SNGP.
Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve, Tadoba National Park
- Tadoba National Park was established in 1955 in Chandrapur district Maharashtra state with a view to preserve the biological wealth and diversity of dry deciduous forests of Central region. The park is located between longitude 79° 14′ 43″ and 79° 21’ 25″ E and latitude 20° 16′ 10″ and 20° 24′ 25″ N.
- It extends over an area of 116.54 sq. km, which is surrounded by Andhari Wild Life Sanctuary (they together constitute Tadoba-Andhari Tiger reserve) that spreads over an area of 509 sq.km.
- The climate of the area is tropical with three distinct seasons– summer, rainy and winter.
- May-June is the hottest period with temperature ranging from 40-47°C.
- December is the coldest month with an average minimum temperature of 9°C.
- The mean annual rainfall of this area is 1041 mm.
- Geologically the area belongs to the Kamthi beds of Raniganj series in Gondwana group.
- The greater part of the area is having undulating topography with a beautiful lake in the centre, having an area of 125 ha, surrounded by small hillocks, having elevation ranging from 213 to 364 meters.
- Andhari is the main river in the area. ( Refer to the national park in maharashtra map )
- The Royal Bengal Tiger and other animals viz. Leopard, Smooth-coated Indian Otter, Indian Gaur and the Indian Giant Squirrel are found in the Park.
- Four birds and two fishes found in the area are endangered.
- Many of the reptiles are listed in schedules of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972.
Navegaon National Park
- Navegaon National Park, commonly known as Navegaon Bandit, is located in the Gondia district of Maharashtra state and is about 150 Km from Nagpur.
- The park area was notified as a National park in the year 2000.
- The Navegaon National Park is situated on the undulating hills, which form the catchment area of the Itiyadoh dam and Navegaon Bandh Lake.
- It covers an area of 133.88 sq Km of pristine dry deciduous to the moist deciduous forest.
- The park has special habitats like caves, cliffs, thickets on the gentle to steep slopes of hills which shelters many species.
- This Park is popular in the east Vidarbha region for the diversity of vegetation which range from dry mixed forest to rainforest.
- The Park consists of the southern tropical dry forest is enriched with varied wildlife, and is an important conservation area in central India.
- It acts as a green lung for settlements nearby and helps to maintain environmental balance.
- The most important habitat in the park is the Navegaon Lake, home to many bird species. Flocks of migratory birds visit this beautiful lake every winter.
- The regular wintering of several migratory birds such as:
- Greylag Goose, Red-crested Pochard, Northern Pintail, Garganey, Eurasian Curlew, Black-tailed Godwit, Common Redshank, Common Greenshank, Little Stint, Curlew Sandpiper, Pallid Harrier.
- Out of the 312 avian species recorded, 15 are listed under different threatened categories (BirdLife International 2014)
- This Important Bird Area has all the large mammals that can be expected in any well-protected forest of central India, such as:
- Tiger, Leopard, Wild Dog, Hyena. Wolf, Sambar, Gaur, Barking Deer, Four-horned Antelope, Sloth Bear, Chital, and Nilgai.
Pench National Park
- Pench in state of Maharashtra was declared as the 25th Tiger Project in the year 1999.
- The Project Tiger is committed to the philosophy of total habitat protection in India.
- It is a magnificent forest and it have a rich population of predators and prey.
- In 1975, it was declared as ‘Pench National Park’.
- The Pench Tiger Reserve (National Park of 257.26 sq. km.) derived its name from the Pench river that runs through this reserve in a north-south direction.
- It is approximately 67 Km from Nagpur by road situated on Nagpur Jabalpur National Highway No. 7.
- The rich diversity of this area has already found it a deserving place in literature dating as far back as the 17th century, and also mentioned by the famous Rudyard Kiplingin his book ‘The Jungle book’.
- Two main types of forests–
- southern tropical dry deciduous teak, and
- southern tropical mixed deciduous forests.
ROCK: Park consists of Metamorphic rocks of the archaean age. They are comprised of schist’s,gneisses, marble, and quartzite. Rocks are with deep and sleep cut across the river and are folded into major syncline and Anticline.
SOIL: The metamorphic rocks forms sandy loose soil with patches of lateritic soil at many places. Soil is well suited for teak growth.
TERRAIN: The Reserve is situated in the southern lower reaches of the Satpura hill ranges, which form the catchment for river Pench. The Pench river runs almost via the centre of the Park in a North-South direction. The folding and upheavals in the past have resulted in the formation of a series of hills and valleys in the Park.
Invertebrate: The park have a wide range of insects including beetles and species. Butterflies and moths belonging to a wide range also found here. Danaid egg fly which is a Schedule I (Part IV) species listed in Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 is found here.
Mammals: Tiger, Panther, Jungle Cat, Small Indian Civet, Palm Civet, Jackal, Sloth bear, Ratel, Common Giant, Flying Squirrel, Gaur, Four-horned antelope etc.
Reptiles: Indian Cobra, Indian Rock Python, Rat snake, Russel’s viper, Checkered keelback and common Monitor Lizard.
Chandoli National Park
- Chandoli National Park in the Southern portion of the Sahyadri Tiger Reserve disseminates along the North Sahyadri Range of the Western Ghats near the Chandoli Dam in Taluka Shirala, District Sangli of Western Maharashtra, India.
- It is located between 17°03ʹ to 17°20ʹ N and 73°46ʹ to 73°53ʹ E, with an elevation of about 589-1044 m above sea level.
- National Park is spread in 318.67 sq.Km. area in the Deccan trap and spread over the geographical area of 30 villages located at the junction of Sangli, Satara, Kolhapur and Ratnagiri districts.
- The climate is moderate.
- The national park has flat-topped mountains, barren rocky lateritic plateaus, large boulders.
- forest types– mixed deciduous forests, semi-evergreen forests and grasslands.
- Warna River originates in the national park near village Patharpung.
- Park has perennial streams and Chandoli reservoir (dam)
- Chandoli is one of the largest men made dams of Maharashtra across the river ‘Ram’ constructed on the border of four districts i.e. Kolhapur, Sangli, Satara and Ratnagiri.
- The length of the reservoir is 45 Km & the area of Chandoli national park is 317.67 sq. km.
- Named after the village Chandoli, the Park was notified as a Wildlife sanctuary in 1985.
- In 2004, the status of this wildlife sanctuary was upgraded to the level of a National Park. Recently, the Park together with the adjacent Koyna wildlife sanctuary has been brought under a Tiger Reserve called ‘Sahyadri Tiger Reserve’ encompassing a total area of 741.22 sq. km. ( Refer to the national park in maharashtra map )
The tiger together with its herbivore prey-base is characteristic of the Park. This park is home to thirteen endemic bird species.
Gugamal National Park
- Gugamal is a division in the Melghat Tiger reserve so we will see about Melghat Tiger reserve here
- Melghat Tiger Reserve (MTR), the part of Satpura Maikal ranges falls in the Amaravati, Akola and Buldhana districts of Vidharbha in Maharashtra.
- Melghat Tiger Reserve is one of the 9 Project Tiger declared initially in 1973 by the GOI and it came into existence in 1974 as the first tiger reserve of Maharashtra.
- Melghat Tiger Reserve is the storehouse of biodiversity and tribal culture.
- The reserve forms an important corridor between protected and forests areas of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra ensuring the contiguity of forests in Satpuras.
- Melghat Tiger Reserve is predominately inhabited by Korku tribes.
- The Korkus, Nihals and Gaolis have their tradition of indigenous ethnobotanical knowledge.
- The gotras of Korkus are named after trees e.g. Jamunkar, Semalkar etc. which goes to prove the integration of their culture with the nature.
- The Melghat Tiger Reserve forms catchment to Tapi and Purna river systems with important
- tributaries like Dolar, Khandu, Sipna, Gadga, Khapra and Wan river.
- The river Chandrabhaga which originates from Chikhaldara has its watershed in the reserve. ( Refer to the national park in maharashtra map )
- It harbours a viable population of Tiger and the endangered Gaur
- It also harbours many other faunal species some of which figure in the IUCN Red Data List. These are Wild dogs, Jackal, Sloth bear, Leopard, Caracal and Ratel.
- The reserve is also very rich in avifauna with 265 species of birds including the recently rediscovered Forest Spotted Owlet.
- Ecologically sensitive animals like Flying Squirrel is abundantly seen here which is an
- example of a close canopied and dense forest of old-growth. The embankments of Tapi, Khapra
- and some ‘doh’ in ‘Koktu’ valley are also reported to harbour crocodiles and otters.
This was all about national park in Maharashtra