National Park in Tamil Nadu: The state of Tamil Nadu has 5 National Parks which are Guindy National Park, Mudumalai National Park, Mukurthi National Park, Indira Gandhi National Park (Annamalai), and Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park. Each one of the National Park in Tamil Nadu is discussed in detail here.
National Parks in Tamil Nadu
|NATIONAL PARKS||AREA Sq.Km.||District||Year of Establishment|
|Guindy National Park||2.7||Chennai||1978|
|Gulf of Mannar Marine Park (21 Islands) Reserve Land - 623.12 Ha + Sea area - 51978.88 Ha||526.02||Ramanathapuram & Tuticorin||1986|
|Indira Gandhi National Park||117.1||Coimbatore||1989|
|Mukurthi National Park||78.46||Nilgiris||2001|
|Mudumalai National Park||103.23||Nilgiris||2005|
Biosphere reserves in Tamil Nadu
|BIOSPHERE RESERVES IN TAMIL NADU|
|Name of Reserve||Area in Ha|
|Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve||2,53,800|
|Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve||10,50,000|
|Agasthiyarmalai Biosphere Reserve||1,67,236|
Tiger reserves in Tamil nadu
|s. NO||NAME OF RESERVE||CORE AREA IN SQ. KM||BUFFER AREA IN SQ. KM||TOTAL AREA IN SQ. KM|
|1||Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve||895.00||706.542||1601.542|
|2||Anamalai Tiger Reserve||958.59||521.28||1479.87|
|3||Mudumalai Tiger Reserve||321.00||367.59||688.59|
|4||Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve||793.493||614.912||1408.405|
|5||Srivilliputtur Megamalai Tiger Reserve||641.862||374.709||1016.571|
Now let’s have a look at each National Park in Tamil Nadu
Guindy National Park
Guindy National Park of Chennai is among a few national parks of India which is situated inside a city area. Guindy National Park apart from providing various ecological services to Chennai also acts as a generator of clean fresh air to the metropolitan Chennai. The Tropical dry evergreen forest here also harbours a sacred grove Sapta Kannika Grove. Only a few sacred groves remain in Chennai now.
The Guindy National Park covers an area of 2.70 square kilometres is one of the few national parks situated within a city. It is the eighth smallest national park in India.
The Dry Evergreen forest of the Guindy National Park comprises thick forests, scrubland, lakes and rivulets. Various species find here an undisturbed habitat amidst the hue and cry of a big city. The National Park had played a major role in the conservation of many species found here such as blackbuck, spotted deer, jackal and pangolin, besides a host of snakes, geckos, tortoises, birds, butterflies, spiders, scorpions, grasshoppers, ants, termites and the like.
Approximately 22 acres of the Guindy National Park has been converted into a park known as the Children’s Park for ex-situ conservation.
Guindy Snake Park is next to Guindy National Park. It is recognised as a medium zoo by the Central Zoo Authority (CZA) in 1995.
Flora and Fauna in Guindy National Park
It contains more than 30 species of trees and many century-old gigantic Banyan Trees.
Park has a significant presence of blackbucks, spotted deers, jackals, and varieties of snakes, over 100 species of birds and over 60 species of butterflies.
The Next in the List of National Park in Tamil Nadu is
Mudumalai National Park
Mudumalai Tiger Reserve and Wildlife sanctuary
- Area: (321 sq.km)
- Location: N.W. corner of Nilgiri plateau, Tamilnadu
- Vegetation: Dry deciduous scrub
- Fauna: Indian giant squirrel, Nilgiri langur, elephant, sambar, gaur and bonnet macaque.
Mudumalai Tiger Reserve comprising of the entire area of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary and Mudumalai National Park lies in the Nilgiris District of Tamil Nadu between
- Latitude 11.50000 and 11.65000 N
- Longitude 76.45000 and 76.71670 E
Mudumalai National Park and Tiger Reserve supports an area good for breeding tigers and also acts as a good corridor for elephants from the Western Ghats to the Eastern Ghats and vice versa. It also forms a part of the designated elephant corridor which connects Moyar and Sathyamangalam. This area is also a part of the Western Ghats which is a global biodiversity hotspot renowned for its flora and fauna and the phenomenon of endemism.
The Mudumalai National Park and Tiger Reserve supports an ecologically sustainable habitat in the Western Ghats landscape for about 60-65 Tigers, 600 to 800 Asian Elephants and Gaurs apart from other animals of significance. This Reserve harbours 227 species of Bird 50 species of Fishes, 21 species of amphibians, 34 species of Reptiles. Three Primate Species are found here. This Reserve has an endemic fish species namely, Puntius mudumalaiensis. Wild colonies of White Backed Vultures are found in the reserve
Also Learn about the Surrounding area of Nilgiri Biosphere reserve which encompasses most of protected area of Nilgiri Mountains in it.
Now the Next in the List of National Park in Tamil Nadu is
Mukurthi National Park
- Area: 80 sq.km
- Location: S.E. corner of the Nilgiri plateau, Tamilnadu
- located on the high altitudes of the Nilgiris, consisting of temperate sholas in depressions.
- Vegetation: Sholas and grasslands
- Fauna: Nilgiri Tahr (state animal of Tamilnadu),sambar, barking deer, Nilgiri marten, otter, jungle Cat, jackal etc
At an average altitude of 2400 m, the terrain of the Mukurthi national park area is primarily grasslands interspersed with numerous isolated, compact, sharply defined montane wet temperate mixed forests locally termed as ‘Sholas’.
Mukurthi National Park peaks acts as the main source of water for not only the Nilgiris, but other regions in the plains, this peak in the Western Ghats assumes great importance. Realising the importance of this unique diversity, the first Biosphere Reserve created in India was the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in year 1986. The Mukurthi National Park area is a Hotspot and a core area in the Biosphere Reserve.
The Mukurthi National Park has been created to protect the Nilgiri Tahr (the state animal of Tamil Nadu), with the Mukurthi peak and its surroundings being the pivotal point. Needless to say, when one species is protected, all other life forms in that area get automatic protection. This in turn preserves and conserves the entire region.
The next one on the List of National Park in Tamil Nadu is
Indira Gandhi National Park (Annamalai)
Anamalai Tiger Reserve It was earlier known as Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park. It is a protected area located in the Anamalai Hills of Tamil Nadu, India.
Location Of Anamalai Tiger Reserve
|Latitudes||10° 13.2’ N to 10 ° 33.3’N|
|Longitudes||76° 49.3’E to 77 0 21.4’E|
- It is the 29th and one of the four Tiger Reserves in Tamil Nadu.
- It is situated South of the Palakkad Gap in the Southern Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu.
- It was originally a territorial division known as Coimbatore South Forest division which was declared as a wildlife sanctuary in 1976.
- The Anamali National Park was declared as Tiger Reserve in April 2007 and declared as a critical Tiger habitat in December 2007.
- Shola forests are found in this reserve alongwith its surrounding area like in Mukurthi National park. Shola forest here has been named as the Kariyan shola, Grass hills and Manjampatti of Anamalai Tiger Reserve, and has been identified as a world heritage site by UNESCO.
The important mammals found here includes: Asiatic elephant, Sambar, Spotted deer, Barking deer, Mouse deer, Gaur, Nilgiri tahr, Lion Tailed Macaque, Nilgiri langur and Common langur. Other common wild animals include: Wild pig and Sloth bear.
The last one on the List of National Park in Tamil Nadu is
Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park
Gulf of Mannar is the first marine Biosphere Reserve not only in India but also in the entire south and southeast Asia. The Gulf is part of the southward extension of the Bay of Bengal as it meets the Indian Ocean. This sea of the Gulf of Mannar may aptly be termed as a marine province in a geographical sense. It straddles across two countries – India and Sri Lanka. Gulf of Mannar has been declared as a Marine National Park in 1986 by the Government of Tamil Nadu and later as the first Marine Biosphere Reserve of India in 1989 by the Government of India.
The Gulf of Mannar is the biologically richest coastal region in India, having more than 4,200 species of plants and animals within its boundaries. In the Gulf of Mannar, one can see the globally endangered dugong, several species of dolphins and whales and endangered sea turtles. Furthermore, the Reserve is home to sea horses, fishes, sea cucumbers, sponges, all kinds of corals. In addition, more than 290 species of birds are found on islands in the reserve. Vital to the ecology of the reserve is the 11 species of mangrove which act as important fish nurseries. Green Tiger Prawn is extensively harvested here for export.
How many national parks are in Tamilnadu?
The state of Tamil Nadu has 5 National Parks which are Guindy National Park, Mudumalai National Park, Mukurthi National Park, Indira Gandhi National Park (Annamalai), and Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park.
Which is the largest national park in Tamilnadu?
Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park with an area of 526.02 sq.km. Spread across 21 islands is the largest National Park in Tamil Nadu
Which is the smallest national park in Tamilnadu?
Guindy National Park of Chennai with an area of 2.7 Sq.Km. is the smallest National park of Tamil Nadu. It is also the 8th smallest national park of India.
This was a brief about National Park in Tamil Nadu, for more information about Tamilnadu protected areas you can also refer to Forest depatment of Tamil Nadu