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75 Ramsar sites in India

75 Ramsar Sites in India in 75th Year of Independence (2022). India adds 11 new wetlands to the list of Ramsar Sites in India.

75 Ramsar Sites in India
  • In the country’s 75th year of independence, India adds 11 additional wetland sites to its list of Ramsar sites, bringing the total to 75 sites spanning a total area of 13,26,677 hectares.
  • Within this year alone (2022), 28 sites have been designated as Ramsar sites. Based on the designation date shown on the Ramsar Certificate, the number is 19 for this year (2022) and 14 for the year before (2021).
  • As of Aug 2022, The state of Tamil Nadu has the most Ramsar sites in India (14), followed by the state of Uttar Pradesh with 10 sites.
  • Goa, Karnataka and Mizoram got there First Ramsar Sites, this year.
  • Addition of new sites takes India’s total number of Ramsar Sites to 75, the most of any South Asian country.. 

The 11 new Ramsar Sites in India include: 

  • Four sites in Tamil Nadu, 
  • Three in Odisha, 
  • Two in Jammu & Kashmir 
  • One in Madhya Pradesh
  • One in Maharashtra.
S. NoName of wetlandState
1.       Tampara LakeOdisha
2.       Hirakud ReservoirOdisha
3.       Ansupa LakeOdisha
4.       Yashwant SagarMadhya Pradesh
5.       Chitrangudi Bird SanctuaryTamil Nadu
6.       Suchindram Theroor Wetland ComplexTamil Nadu
7.       Vaduvur Bird SanctuaryTamil Nadu
8.       Kanjirankulam Bird SanctuaryTamil Nadu
9.       Thane CreekMaharashtra
10.   Hygam Wetland Conservation ReserveJammu and Kashmir
11.   Shallbugh Wetland Conservation ReserveJammu and Kashmir
New Ramsar Sites in India

The purpose of declaring Ramsar Sites under the Ramsar Convention is to stop the worldwide loss of wetlands and conserve them through wise use and management. This aim requires international cooperation, policymaking, capacity building, and technology transfer. Wetlands International or the Ramsar wetlands are selected because of their ecological, botanical, zoological, limnological, or hydrological importance.

The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty established in 1971. The treaty’s purpose is to stop the worldwide loss of wetlands and conserve them through wise use and management. Wetlands are important because they provide various ecological services, such as filtering and cleaning water, buffering against floods, and storing carbon. They also support a wide variety of plant and animal life.

Declaring Ramsar Sites under the Ramsar Convention is one of the most effective ways to stop the worldwide loss of wetlands and conserve them through wise use and management. Wetlands provide many benefits to people and nature, including flood control, water purification, erosion control, climate regulation, and habitat for plants and animals. Unfortunately, wetlands are being lost at an alarming rate due to various factors, including development, agriculture, pollution, and climate change

The primary purpose of declaring Ramsar Sites under the Ramsar Convention is to stop the worldwide loss of wetlands and conserve them through wise use and management.

UPSC PYQ

You can leave your answers to these questions in the comment section at the end of the article.

UPSC Prelims

Year 2022. Consider the following pairs:

      Wetland/Lake: Location

  1. Hokera —Wetland Punjab
  2. Renuka Wetland —Himachal Pradesh
  3. Rudrasagar Lake —Tripura
  4. Sasthamkotta —Tamil Nadu

How many pairs given above are correctly matched?

  • (a) Only one pair
  • (b) Only two pairs
  • (c) Only three pairs
  • (d) All four pairs

Year 2022. “”If rainforests and tropical forests are the lungs of the Earth, then surely wetlands function as its kidneys.”” Which one of the following functions of wetlands best reflects the above statement?

  • (a) The water cycle in wetlands involves surface runoff, subsoil percolation and evaporation.
  • (b) Algae form the nutrient base upon which fish, crustaceans, molluscs, birds, reptiles and mammals thrive.
  • (c) 58 15 Wetlands play a vital role in maintaining sedimentation balance and soil stabilisation.
  • (d) Aquatic plants absorb heavy metals and excess nutrients.

Year 2021. “”R2 Code of Practices”” constitute a tool available for promoting the adoption of

  • (a) Environmentally responsible practices in the electronics recycling industry
  • (b) Ecological management of “”Wetlands of International Importance”” under the Ramsar Convention
  •  (c) Sustainable practices in the cultivation of agricultural crops in degraded lands
  •  (d) “”Environmental Impact Assessment”” in the exploitation of natural resources

Year 2019. Consider the following statements:

  1. Under Ramsar Convention, it is mandatory on the part of the Government of India to protect and conserve all the wetlands in the territory of India.
  2. The Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules, 2010, were framed by the Government of India based on the recommendations of the Ramsar Convention.
  3. The Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules, 2010 also encompass the drainage area or catchment regions of the wetlands as determined by the authority.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • (a) 1 and 2 only
  • (b) 2 and 3 only
  • (c) 3 only
  • (d) 1, 2 and 3

Year 2018 GS PAPER 3

What is a wetland? Explain the Ramsar concept of ”wise use” in the context of wetland conservation. Cite two examples of Ramsar sites from India.


List of Ramsar sites in India State wise in 2022 – Ramsar sites india

In Aug 2022, 21 new Indian sites were added to the List of Ramsar sites, or wetlands of international importance, bringing the number of such Ramsar Sites in India to 75. These Include

Tampara LakeOdisha
Hirakud ReservoirOdisha
Ansupa LakeOdisha
Yashwant SagarMadhya Pradesh
Chitrangudi Bird SanctuaryTamil Nadu
Suchindram Theroor Wetland ComplexTamil Nadu
Vaduvur Bird SanctuaryTamil Nadu
Kanjirankulam Bird SanctuaryTamil Nadu
Thane CreekMaharashtra
Hygam Wetland Conservation ReserveJammu and Kashmir
Shallbugh Wetland Conservation ReserveJammu and Kashmir
– New Ramsar Sites in India 
Koothankulam Bird Sanctuary,Tamil Nadu
Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere ReserveTamil Nadu
Vembannur Wetland ComplexTamil Nadu
Vellode Bird SanctuaryTamil Nadu
Vedanthangal Bird SanctuaryTamil Nadu
Udhayamarthandapuram Bird SanctuaryTamil Nadu
Satkosia GorgeOdisha
Nanda LakeGoa
Ranganathittu Bird SanctuaryKarnataka
Sirpur WetlandMadhya Pradesh
New Ramsar Sites in India

On 26 July 2022, five new Indian sites were added to the List of Ramsar sites, or wetlands of international importance.These Include

Karikili Bird SanctuaryTamil Nadu
Pallikaranai Marsh Reserve ForestTamil Nadu
Pichavaram MangroveTamil Nadu
Sakhya SagarMadhya Pradesh
Pala WetlandsMizoram
Ramsar Sites in India

2 February 2022 – The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands designated 2 new sites.

Khijadia Bird Sanctuary near JamnagarGujarat
Bakhira Wildlife SanctuaryUttar Pradesh 
Rmasar sites in india

Ramsar sites india 2022

The theme of World Wetlands Day (2 February 2022) is “The Role of Wetlands for People and Nature,” emphasising the need for conservation and sustainable use of wetlands for human and environmental health.

Latest ramsar sites in india 2022

ramsar sites in india
ramsar sites in india

The 28 New Ramsar Sites in India in 2022

The number of Ramsar Sites in India is now 75.

Most Important Protected Areas

Elephant Reserves in IndiaBiodiversity hotspots in India
40 UNESCO World Heritage Sites IndiaCritically Endangered Species in India
75 Ramsar sites in IndiaMangrove sites in India
53 Tiger reserves in IndiaVulture in India

Tampara Lake

Ramsar Sites in India  Odhisa

Ganjam district is home to one of the most renowned freshwater lakes in the state of Odisha, Tampara Lake. The depression on the land eventually filled with rainwater from catchment flow and was referred to by the British as “Tamp” and afterwards by the locals as “Tampra.” It is an important habitat for vulnerable species, including Cyprinus carpio, common pochard, and river tern.

Hirakud Reservoir

Ramsar Sites in India  Odhisa

Hirakud Reservoir, Odisha’s largest earthen dam, began operations in 1957. The reservoir is home to a variety of floral and faunal species. The reservoir provides water for hydropower generation as well as irrigation of the cultural command area. The wetland also serves an essential hydrological function by reducing floods in the Mahanadi delta.

Ansupa Lake 

Ramsar Sites in India  Odhisa

Ansupa Lake is Odisha’s largest freshwater lake, located in the Banki sub-division of the Cuttack district, and has long been known for its scenic beauty, biodiversity, and natural riches. The wetland, which covers an area of 231 acres, is an oxbow lake produced by the Mahanadi River. Because it is a key wintering site for migrating birds and is also noted for its aesthetic magnificence, the marsh offers enormous recreational and tourist potential.

Yashwant Sagar

 Ramsar Sites in India  Madhya Pradesh

Yashwant Sagar is one of two Important Bird Areas (IBA) in the Indore area and one of the most important birding spots in Madhya Pradesh’s Malwa region. It is now mostly utilised for water supply to the city of Indore, although it is also used for commercial fish cultivation. In central India, Yashwant Sagar is known to be a stronghold for the vulnerable Sarus Crane. There are several shallow spots in the lake backwaters that are ideal for waders and other waterfowl. Many islands serve as roosting spots for waterfowl when the water level recedes. The wetland attracts a high number of winter migrating birds due to its enormous shallow reed beds.

Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary

Ramsar Sites in India  Tamil Nadu

Locally known as “Chitrangudi Kanmoli,” the Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary is situated in the Ramanathapuram region of Tamil Nadu. Since 1989, the wetland has been a protected area and a Bird Sanctuary, falling under the authority of the Ramanathapuram division of the Tamil Nadu Forest Department. The Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary is a great refuge for migrating birds throughout the winter. Notable waterbirds sighted at the location include the spot-billed Pelican, the little egret, the great egret, the open-billed Stork, the purple heron, and the pond heron.

Suchindram Theroor Wetland Complex

Ramsar Sites in India  Tamil Nadu

Suchindrum Theroor Wetland Complex is situated inside the Suchindrum-Theroor Manakudi Conservation Reserve. It is designated as an Important Bird Area and is located at the southernmost end of the Central Asian flyway of migrating birds. It was created for the purpose of birds nesting and annually attracts thousands of birds. It’s a perennial, man-made Tank.

Vaduvur Bird Sanctuary

Ramsar Sites in India  Tamil Nadu

Vaduvur bird sanctuary, which covers an area of 112.638 hectares, is a vast man-made irrigation tank that serves as a refuge for migrating birds by providing suitable habitat for feeding, shelter, and nesting. Vaduvur Bird Sanctuary offers a diversified ecosystem, including a number of inlets and nearby irrigated agricultural fields, which give excellent nesting and feeding opportunities for birds.

Kanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary

Ramsar Sites in India  Tamil Nadu

The Kanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary is a protected area in Mudukulathur Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu, India, that was designated in 1989. It is noteworthy as a breeding place for several migrating heron species, which roost in the abundant babul tree growth there. Painted Stork, white ibis, black ibis, little egret, and great egret are among the migratory waterbirds that visit here. The threatened Spot-billed Pelican breeds at this IBA-qualified location. Rich in biodiversity, the marsh is home to species such as the Spot-billed Pelican, Oriental Darter, Oriental white Ibis, and Painted Stork. The marsh hosts IUCN-Vulnerable bird species, the River Tern.

ramsar sites in india
ramsar sites in india

Thane Creek

Ramsar Sites in India  Maharashtra 

Thane Creek is in the Indian state of Maharashtra. The creek receives fresh water from multiple sources, the greatest of which being the Ulhas River, followed by other drainage routes from different suburban neighbourhoods of Mumbai, Navi Mumbai, and Thane. Thane Creek Flamingo Sanctuary has been established in it. Thane Creek is surrounded on both sides by mangroves, which account for about 20% of all Indian mangrove species.

The mangrove forest protects the land from storms, tidal surges, saltwater seepage, and incursions by acting as a natural shelter belt. The mangrove acts as a nursery for a variety of fish and helps to support the local fishing. The region is an essential part of the wetland complex of the birds’ Central Asian Flyway and has been designated as an Important Bird Area (IBA).

Hygam Wetland Conservation Reserve

Ramsar Sites in India  Jammu Kashmir

Hygam Wetland is located in the River Jhelum basin and serves as a flood absorption basin, biodiversity conservation site, eco-tourism destination, and source of income for local populations. The wetland lies in the district of Baramulla. It is home to numerous resident and migratory bird species and is designated as an Important Bird Area (IBA). Because of the high rate of siltation, Hygam Wetland has lost many of its wetland features and, in many areas, altered its profile into a landmass. This has resulted in additional degradation of habitat conditions suitable for both visiting migratory birds and resident species.

Shallbugh Wetland Conservation Reserve

Ramsar Sites in India  Jammu Kashmir

Shallabug Wetland Conservation Reserve is in the district of Srinagar, in the UT of Jammu and Kashmir. Between September and March, large parts of the wetland dry up. It is home to around four lakh resident and migratory birds of at least 21 species. Shallabugh Wetland is important for natural flood management, amelioration, and prevention. A significant natural floodplain system. The Shallabugh Wetland offers a wide range of ecosystem services, including fish and fibre supply, water supply, water purification, climate management, flood control, and recreational activities.

Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary

Ramsar Sites in India  Tamil Nadu

This site is an Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) because it is home to many species, such as the black-headed ibis, Eurasian spoonbill, black-crowned night heron, and painted stork. It is in the village of Vedanthangal and has a small irrigation tank surrounded by rocky plains and low-ridged, bare hills.

Udhayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary

Ramsar Sites in India  Tamil Nadu

The Sanctuary is made up of irrigation tanks that people built. They are linked by an old network of canals filled with water from the Mettur dam through the Koraiyar canal. Several kinds of waterbirds use the site as a stopover and a place to raise their young. The oriental darter, black-headed ibis, Eurasian wigeon, Northern pintail, and garganey are some of the fascinating species that have been seen.

Vellode Bird Sanctuary

Ramsar Sites in India  Tamil Nadu

Because of the abundance of food supplies from nearby agricultural fields and other aquatic species, this man-made pond provides a great home for birds. It serves as a critical staging and nesting area for migrating birds on the Central Asian Flyway, as well as resident species such as the Indian river tern, oriental darter, and painted stork. This site supplies drinking water and fish to local populations. Farmers from the surrounding villages benefit from increased crop yields due to the arrival of a huge number of birds, whose droppings enrich the irrigation water.

Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve

Ramsar Sites in India  Tamil Nadu

Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve
Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve

The Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, located at India’s southernmost coast, is the first Marine Biosphere Reserve in South and South-East Asia. The Gulf is one of India’s most ecologically varied locations, where the southerly Bay of Bengal extension meets the Indian Ocean. The dugong, whale shark, green sea turtle, hawksbill turtle, and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin are all globally threatened species found here. It is both a Marine National Park and a World Heritage Site.

Koonthankulam Bird Sanctuary

Ramsar Sites in India  Tamil Nadu

The site comprises irrigation tanks linked by a network of canals established centuries ago and supplied by rivers flowing from the Western Ghats mountain range. Otherwise, it only gets water during the periodic monsoon rains. This wetland is South India’s biggest breeding resident and migratory waterbird refuge. It is a Central Asian Flyway’s Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA). The Indian pond heron, Eurasian wigeon, spot-billed pelican, oriental darter, and Northern pintail are among the waterbirds found here.

Vembannur Wetland Complex

Ramsar Sites in India  Tamil Nadu

The Vembannur Wetland is a man-made irrigation pond in Tamil Nadu, in the southernmost part of India. The site is part of an Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA). It is home to various waterbird species, including the Indian river tern, spotted greenshank, garganey, and grey pelican.

Satkosia Gorge

Ramsar Sites in India  Odhisa

Satkosia George
Satkosia George

Satkosia Gorge was designated as a wildlife sanctuary in the Angul district of Odisha State in 1976. It combines rivers, marshes, and evergreen forests at the confluence point of two biogeographic areas, the Deccan Peninsula and the Eastern Ghats. Important species: red-crowned roofed turtle, Indian narrow-headed softshell turtle, tiger, and black-bellied.

Nanda Lake

Ramsar Sites in India  Goa

Nanda Lake is made up of intermittent freshwater wetlands that are next to one of the Zuari River’s main tributaries. They are connected to the neighbouring river channel by a sluice gate, which, when closed, allows the marshes to flood. This wetland is home to a variety of migrating waterbirds. Notable bird species include the black-headed ibis, wire-tailed swallow, bronze-winged jacana, and brahminy kite.

Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary

Ramsar Sites in India  Karnataka

kaveri river
kaveri river

Ranganthittu Bird Sanctuary is located on the Southern Deccan Plateau beside the Kaveri River. This area consists of gently sloping plains crossed by numerous big rivers that originate in the Western Ghats mountain range and run eastward to the Bay of Bengal. It is home to robust populations of mugger crocodiles, smooth-coated otters, and hump-backed mahseers. The site also supports more than 1% of the world’s painted stork, spot-billed pelican, and black-headed ibis populations, earning its designation as an Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA).

Sirpur Wetland

Ramsar Sites in India  Madhya Pradesh

Sirpur Wetland is an artificial wetland that has stabilised and gained near-natural features during the previous two centuries. The site, also known as Pakshi Vihar (bird sanctuary), is a shallow, alkaline, nutrient-rich lake that floods to a depth of two metres during the monsoon. During the winter, waterbirds gather here; the site contains locals and migrants, such as the common pochard, Egyptian vulture, and Indian river tern.

Karikili Bird Sanctuary

Ramsar Sites in India  Tamil Nadu

  • Administrative region: Partly Maduranthagam Taluk,Chengalpattu District & partly Kancheepuram District. Tamil Nadu
  • Area: 58.4 ha

The Karikili Bird Sanctuary is made up of two rain-fed non-perennial irrigation tanks that cover an area of more than 58 hectares. The Site is level or slightly undulating, with low ridged, rocky hillocks nearby. Rainfall fluctuates greatly from year to year, ranging from 400 mm to over 1,700 mm, flooding the Site during the monsoon months of July and September. The vegetation is mostly made up of Barringtonia acutangula and Acacia nilotica trees that the Forest Department has grown as plantations. The surrounding vegetation is made up of brush and thorn.

The Site is home to a variety of resident and migratory birds, the majority of which are waterbirds, as well as a few species of scavengers, including the near-threatened oriental dart and spot-billed pelican. The wetland is also home to a variety of animals, reptiles, and amphibians, including the jungle cat, bonnet macaque, jackal, python, sand boa, and frogs. The Karikili Bird Sanctuary has a long tradition of people working together to safeguard waterbirds, whose guano provides nutrient-rich water to farming fields. The Site was designated as a Bird Sanctuary in 1972.

Pallikaranai Marsh Reserve Forest

Ramsar Sites in India  Tamil Nadu

  • Administrative region: Chennai City. Tamil Nadu.
  • Area: 1,247.5 ha

This freshwater marsh and partially saline wetland, located approximately 20 kilometres south of Chennai, acts as an aquatic buffer for the flood-prone districts of Chennai and Chengalpattu. The marshland’s complex environment is home to 115 bird species, ten mammals, 21 reptiles, 10 amphibians, 46 fish, nine mollusks, five crustaceans, and seven butterfly species.

Notable species include the Russell’s viper and birds such as the glossy ibis, grey-headed lapwings, and Pheasant-tailed jacana.

Aside from its biological significance, the wetland serves an important role in flood control for the city of Chennai, absorbing water during rainy seasons and releasing it during dry spells. Seven adjacent villages rely on the marsh for a portion of their sustenance. Invasive and nonnative species, home sewage, urban wastewater, and droughts are all threats to the Site.

Pichavaram Mangrove

Ramsar Sites in India  Tamil Nadu

  • Tamil Nadu
  • Area: 1,478.6 ha 

The Site, one of India’s biggest mangrove ecosystems, is situated between the important estuaries of the Vellar and Coleroon Rivers and includes coastal and swamp forest habitats. It provides not only waterscape and backwater tours but also a unique sight: mangrove trees that are firmly entrenched in a few feet of water. The Site is home to Rhizophoro annamalayana, a natural hybrid species developed from two Rhizophora species: R.apiculata and another natural hybrid R.mucronata.

Like other mangrove wetlands in India, Pichavaram Mangrove supports several threatened species, such as the critically endangered great white-bellied heron and spoon-billed sandpiper, the endangered spotted greenshank and the vulnerable olive ridley turtle. The Site also provides spawning and nursing ground for commercially important prawns, mainly white prawn and tiger prawn, crabs and fish. 

The mangroves are revered by the local communities due to the significant spiritual value associated with a mangrove with toxic properties commonly known as “Tillai”. 

Sakhya Sagar 

Ramsar Sites in India  Madhya Pradesh

  • Madhya Pradesh
  • Area: 248 ha

Sakhya Sagar is a man-made wetland in the Madhav National Park on the outskirts of Shivpuri. The site has a diverse landscape that includes open water and nearby wetlands, plantations, and a tiny portion of agricultural land. The reservoir is shallow, alkaline, and rich in nutrients.

This wetland not only enhances the natural beauty of the region but it also offers a constant supply of water for wildlife and habitat for creatures such as thousands of migrating waterfowl and mugger crocodiles, the presence of which draws visitors.

The wetland is also important for nutrient cycling, groundwater recharge, and controlling the local microclimate. The site is one of Shivpuri’s “three lakes.”

Pala Wetlands 

Ramsar Sites in India  Mizoram

  • Mizoram
  • Area: 1,850 ha 

Pala Wetland is the state of Mizoram’s biggest natural wetland. The Site encompasses a reasonably deep lake (more than 16 metres deep on average) and its surrounding forest catchment region, which rises to over 600 metres above sea level. Many herbivores, including sambar deer, wild pig, and barking deer, thrive in the wetland’s low-lying marshy regions.

The marsh is also home to many primate species, including the endangered Hoolock gibbon and Phayre’s leaf monkey. The indigenous Mara people adore Pala Wetland, which has a strong relationship to their past. The wetland provides the majority of freshwater and fish to the settlements on its outskirts, as well as irrigation water for wet rice production, horticulture, and other sorts of agriculture.

Khijadiya Wildlife Sanctuary

Ramsar Sites in India  Gujrat

The Khijadiya wetland, part of the Central Asian Flyway, has become Gujarat’s fourth Ramsar site. It makes Gujarat: the state with the third-highest number of Ramsar sites in India. 

Khijadiya is an essential stopover for migratory birds on their way from Europe to Central Asia and vice versa. It is also a breeding ground for many residents and migratory bird species. The wetland covers an area of 6.05 sq km and is located in the Jamnagar district. 

The other three Ramsar sites in Gujarat are the Nalsarovar Bird Sanctuary, Thol Lake Wildlife Sanctuary, and Wadhvana Wetland.

  • Khijadiya, which is part of the Central Asian Flyway, has now become Gujarat’s fourth Ramsar site.
  • Khijadiya Wildlife Sanctuary or khijadiya bird sanctuary jamnagar is a freshwater wetland along the coastline of Kutch that was developed in the 1920s as a result of the construction of a bund (dike) by the then ruler of the formerly princely state of Nawanagar to safeguard farmlands against saltwater intrusion.
  • The Khijadiya Wildlife Sanctuary / khijadiya bird sanctuary jamnagar is a part of the Marine National Park, Jamnagar, the India’s first marine national park.

Bakhira Wildlife Sanctuary

Ramsar Sites in India  Uttar Pradesh

The Bakhira Wildlife Sanctuary is a freshwater wetland in the Sant Kabir Nagar district of eastern UP. It was designated as a Ramsar site in 2022 and covers an area of 29 sq. km.

  • Bakhira Wildlife Sanctuary a freshwater wetland in the SantKabir Nagar district of eastern Uttar Pradesh, and is the largest natural floodplain wetland in the UP.
  • The Bakhira Wildlife Sanctuary was founded in 1980 and is protected by the Wildlife Protection Act (1972).
  • The eco-sensitive zone extends up to a kilometre along its perimeter.
ramsar sites in up map
ramsar sites in up map

The 5 New addition to Ramsar Sites in India in 2021

Wetlands provide vital ecosystem services such as water storage, water purification, flood control, erosion control, air purification, and carbon sequestration. India has 75 Ramsar sites, including both natural and artificial wetlands. In 2021, five new wetland sites were added to the list of Ramsar Sites in India.

Here is the list of the Five Ramsar sites that were added to the list of Ramsar sites in India in 2021.

Haiderpur Wetland

  • The Haiderpur Wetland, located on the Muzaffarnagar-Bijnor border between the Ganges and the Solani River, covers an area of 69.08 sq. km. It is situated in the Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • The Haiderpur Wetland is an artificial lake that was created in 1984. Birds are drawn to this area because of its biodiversity. Exotic birds travel here after crossing Mongolia’s hills.
  • There are dolphins, turtles, alligators, crocodiles, butterflies, and deer in the Haiderpur wetland ecosystem. There are approximately 30 plant species, over 300 bird species, 40 fish species, and 102 waterfowl species.

Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is the largest wetland site in the state of Haryana.
  • It is a human-made freshwater wetland.
  • It is the first Ramsar site in Haryana.
  • The site is located in the Jhajjar district, about 15 km from Jhajjar town.
  • In June 2009, it was also declared a bird sanctuary by the government of India.
  • One can spot over 250 bird species in this wetland site throughout the year. It is a resting and roosting site for these birds.
  • Ten globally threatened species are found here, including the endangered Egyptian Vulture, Steppe Eagle, Pallas’s Fish Eagle, and Black-bellied Tern.

Sultanpur National Park

  • Sultanpur National Park/Ramsar site is situated in Sultanpur village, located on the Gurugram-Jhajjar highway, 15 km from Gurugram.
  • It supports almost 220 species, including winter migratory and local migratory waterbirds at critical life cycles.
  • It also includes ten globally threatened species, like the sociable lapwing, the endangered Egyptian Vulture, the Saker Falcon, Pallas’s Fish Eagle, and the Black-bellied Tern.

Thol Lake Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Thol Lake is an artificial lake at Thol village located in Kadi, Mehsana District, Gujarat.
  • It is located on the Central Asian Flyway, and almost 320 bird species are found here.
  • This wetland hosts more than 30 threatened waterbird species, like the critically endangered White-rumped Vulture and Sociable Lapwing, the vulnerable Sarus Crane, Common Pochard, and the Lesser White-fronted Goose.

Wadhvana Wetland

  • Location: Dabhoi taluka in Vadodara district.
  • Irrigation Tank Area: 10.38 sq. km.
  • Main Attractions: It has over 200 species of birds, scenic beauty, and rich biodiversity. The variety of birds includes both resident and migratory birds.
  • It includes some threatened or near-threatened species, such as the endangered Pallas’s fish-eagle, the vulnerable Common Pochard, the near-threatened Dalmatian Pelican, the Grey-headed fish-eagle, and the Ferruginous Duck.

How many ramsar sites in india 2022 ? 

Ramsar sites in India

 State / UTRamsar SiteYear of DeclarationArea ( Sq. Km.)
1Jammu & KashmirHokera Wetland
200513.75
2Jammu & KashmirSurinsar-Mansar Lakes20053.5
3Jammu & KashmirShallbugh Wetland Conservation Reserve202216.75
4Jammu & KashmirHygam Wetland Conservation Reserve20228.01
5Jammu & KashmirWular Lake
1990189
6LadakhTso Kar Wetland Complex202095.77
7LadakhTsomoriri Lake2002120
8HaryanaBhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary20214.34
9HaryanaSultanpur National Park20211.42
10Himachal PradeshChandertal Wetland20050.49
11Himachal PradeshPong Dam Lake2002156.62
12Himachal PradeshRenuka Wetland
2005
0.2
13PunjabBeas Conservation Reserve201964.289
14PunjabHarike Lake1990
41
15PunjabKanjli Lake20021.83
16PunjabKeshopur-Miani Community Reserve20193.439
17PunjabNangal Wildlife Sanctuary2019
1.16
18PunjabRopar Lake200213.65
19Uttar PradeshBakhira Wildlife Sanctuary202229
20Uttar PradeshHaiderpur Wetland202169.08
21Uttarakhand
Asan Conservation Reserve20204.4
22Uttar PradeshNawabganj Bird Sanctuary20192.24
23Uttar PradeshParvati Agra Bird Sanctuary
20197.22
24Uttar PradeshSaman Bird Sanctuary201952.63
25Uttar PradeshSamaspur Bird Sanctuary201979.94
26Uttar PradeshSandi Bird Sanctuary201930.85
27Uttar PradeshSarsai Nawar Jheel
201916.13
28Uttar PradeshSur Sarovar20204.31
29Uttar PradeshUpper Ganga River
(Brijghat to Narora Stretch)
2005
265.9
30RajasthanKeoladeo Ghana NP198128.73
31RajasthanSambhar Lake1990
240
32AssamDeepor Beel2002
40
33TripuraRudrasagar Lake20052.4
34MizoramPala Wetlands202218.5
35ManipurLoktak Lake
1990
266
36West Bengal
East Kolkata Wetlands2002125
37West Bengal
Sunderbans Wetland
20194230
38BiharKabartal Wetland2020
26.20
39OdishaChilka Lake1981
1165
40Odisha
Bhitarkanika Mangroves2002650
41OdishaTampara Lake20223.00
42OdishaHirakud Reservoir2022654.00
43OdishaAnsupa Lake20222.31
44OdishaSatkosia Gorge2022981.967
45Madhya PradeshBhoj Wetlands2002
32.01
46Madhya PradeshSakhya Sagar20222.48
47Madhya PradeshYashwant Sagar 20228.22
48Madhya PradeshSirpur Wetland 20221.61
49Maharashtra
Lonar Lake
20204.27
50MaharashtraThane Creek202265.21
51MaharashtraNandur Madhameshwar201914.37
52GoaNanda Lake20220.42
53GujaratKhijadiya Wildlife Sanctuary20226.05
54GujaratNalsarovar Bird Sanctuary2012120
55GujratThol Lake Wildlife Sanctuary20216.99
56GujratWadhvana Wetland2021huge lake with about 2km radius
57Andhra PradeshKolleru Lake2002901
58Tamil NaduPoint Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary
2002
385
59Tamil NaduKarikili Bird Sanctuary20220.584
60Tamil NaduPallikaranai Marsh Reserve Forest202212.475
61Tamil NaduUdhayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary20220.438
62Tamil NaduVedanthangal Bird Sanctuary
20220.403
63Tamil NaduVellode Bird Sanctuary
20220.772
64Tamil NaduVembannur Wetland Complex20220.197
65Tamil NaduGulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve2022526.719
66Tamil NaduKoonthankulam Bird Sanctuary20220.72
67Tamil NaduChitrangudi Bird Sanctuary20222.60
68Tamil NaduSuchindram Theroor Wetland Complex20220.9423
69Tamil NaduVaduvur Bird Sanctuary20221.12
70Tamil NaduKanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary20220.96
71Tamil NaduPichavaram Mangrove202214.786
72Karnataka
Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary20225.177
73Kerala
Asthamudi Wetland2002614
74KeralaSasthamkotta Lake
20023.73
75KeralaVembanad Kol Wetland20021512.5

All other important facts about state wise ramsar sites in india is listed below.

Download Ramsar sites in India Map 2022 / wetlands in india map

2022 ramsar sites in india – ramsar sites in india on map – ramsar sites in india in map – wetland map of india


What is Ramsar Convention

  • The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands is an intergovernmental treaty which provides the framework for international cooperation and national action for the conservation and the wise use of wetlands and their resources by the member nations. It was signed in a city of Iran called Ramsar in 1971 and also known as the Convention on Wetlands.
  • The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands is an intergovernmental treaty signed in 1971 in the Iranian city of Ramsar, hence the name of the Convention. The treaty defines wetlands and establishes a framework for national and international action to conserve and sustainably use wetland resources. 
  • The network of Ramsar Sites is genuinely global and includes coastal and inland wetlands of all types in all regions.
  • The world’s first Ramsar site was the Cobourg Peninsula in Australia, designated in 1974. The largest Ramsar sites in the world are Rio Negro in Brazil (120,000 square kilometres), Ngiri-Tumba-Maindombe in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Queen Maud Gulf in Canada; these sites cover over 60,000 square kilometres. 
  • The countries with the most Ramsar sites are the United Kingdom with 175 and Mexico with 142Bolivia has the most protected area under the Ramsar Convention, with 148,000 square kilometres under the Convention’s protection; Canada, Chad, Congo, and the Russian Federation have also designated over 100,000 square kilometres.  

Purpose to declare Ramsar Site

The purpose to declare Ramsar Sites under Ramsar Convention is to stop the worldwide loss of wetlands and to conserve them, through wise use and management. This aim requires international cooperation, policy making, capacity building and technology transfer. Wetlands for the list are selected because of their ecological, botanical, zoological, limnological or hydrological importance.

How Ramsar Convention Conserves these sites

  • The Ramsar treaty encourages the designation of wetland sites containing representative, rare or unique wetlands, or wetlands that are important for conserving the biological diversity.
  • After a site is added to the Convention’s List of Wetlands of International Importance it become known as Ramsar sites.
  • When a wetland is declared as a Ramsar site, the host country agree to establish and oversee a management framework for conserving the wetland and ensuring its wise use.
Keoladeo-Ghana-NP-Wetland

What is Wise Use under Ramsar Convention

Wise use under the Ramsar Convention is defined as Maintaining the ecological character of a wetland.

Montreux Record

The main objectives of the Ramsar Convention are to

  • – recognise the ecological and economic importance of wetlands; 
  • – identify wetland habitats that are in need of special protection; 
  • – promote sustainable use of wetlands resources; and 
  • – encourage cooperation among countries in conserving their shared wetlands. 
  • One important achievement of the Ramsar Convention has been the compilation of a “Montreux Record” – a detailed database of all wetland sites that have been designated as being of international importance. This information helps ensure that these sites receive appropriate conservation attention.
  • The Montreux Record is a register of wetland sites on the List of Wetlands of International Importance where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur as a result of technological developments, pollution or other human interference. It is maintained as part of the Ramsar List.
  • The Montreux Record was created by Recommendation of the Conference of the Contracting Parties in 1990.

Here are few Important Questions regarding the Ramsar sites in india, which will add further to your knowledge.

When did India signed Ramsar Convention

The Ramsar convention entered into force in India on February 1, 1982. India, currently in the year 2022, has 75 sites designated as wetlands of international importance (Ramsar Sites).

How many Ramsar Sites are in India?

As of 13th August 2022, India has 75 sites designated as wetlands of international importance (Ramsar Sites), with India’s total wetland territory making 13,26,677 hectares.

Which State has maximum number of Ramsar Sites in India?

As of Aug 2022, The state of Tamil Nadu has the most Ramsar sites in India (14), followed by the state of Uttar Pradesh with 10 sites.

How many Ramsar sites in Uttar Pradesh

ramsar sites in up map

Uttar Pradesh have a total of 10 Ramsar wetland sites in 2022, which is highest among states in India. There names are: (ramsar sites in UP 2021)- ramsar sites in up map
1. Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary
2. Parvati Agra Bird Sanctuary
3. Saman Bird Sanctuary
4. Samaspur Bird Sanctuary
5. Sandi Bird Sanctuary
6. Sarsai Nawar Jheel
7. Sur Sarovar
8. Upper Ganga River (Brijghat to Narora Stretch)
9. Haiderpur Wetland
10. Bakhira Wildlife Sanctuary

Which is largest Ramsar site in India

Area: 423,000 ha  Designation date: 30-01-2019 
The Sundarban Wetland is located in the delta of the rivers Ganga and Brahmaputra in the Sundarbans, the world’s largest mangrove forest, which includes hundreds of islands and a maze of rivers, rivulets, and creeks.
The Indian Sundarban, which covers the delta’s southernmost reaches, accounts for more than 60% of the country’s total mangrove forest area and contains 90% of the Indian mangrove species.
Sundarbans Wetland in West Bengal having 4230 Sq. Km. area is largest Ramsar site in India

Smallest Ramsar site in India

Area: 20 ha  – Designation date: 08-11-2005 – smallest wetland in india
Renuka Wetland in Himachal Pradesh having 0.2 Sq. Km area is the smallest Ramsar site in India
Renuka wetland is a natural wetland with freshwater springs and inland subterranean karst formations, fed by a small stream flowing from the lower Himalayans out to the Giri river
There are 103 species of birds in Renuka wetland, of which 66 are residents, e.g., the Crimson-breasted Barbet, Mayna, Bulbul, pheasants, egrets, herons, mallards, and lapwing.
The Renuka lake has high religious significance and is named after the mother of the Hindu sage “Parshuram”. It is visited by thousands of pilgrims and tourists every year. 

Which is the first Ramsar Site in India?

Area: 2,873 ha  Designation date: 01-10-1981 

Keoladeo Ghana NP: Added to the Montreux Record on July 4, July 1990. It is a World Heritage Site, a National Park, and a Bird Sanctuary. Keoladeo is a collection of ten artificial, seasonal lagoons of varying sizes located in a densely populated area. 
Keoladeo Ghana NP in Rajasthan and Chilka Lake in Orissa were together declared first Ramsar sites in India on 1.10.1981.

Total wetlands in india 2022?

How many wetlands in india 2022? In the year 2022, India has 75 sites designated as wetlands of international importance (Ramsar Sites).

smallest-wetland-in-india
smallest-wetland-in-india – Ramsar Sites in India

Ramsar Sites in India

Here is the Ramsar sites in India List. All the Ramsar sites in India are arranged statewise here.

Ramsar Sites in India 

Ramsar Sites in Jammu Kashmir

Hokera Wetland Jammu & Kashmir

  • Hokera wetland is located in the northwest Himalayan biogeographic province of Kashmir, behind the snow-draped Pir Panjal, and is only 10 kilometres from the picturesque paradise of Srinagar.
  • It is the only place in Kashmir with remnant reedbeds and a gateway for 68 waterfowl species from Siberia, China, Central Asia, and Northern Europe, including the Large Egret, Little Cormorant, Common Shelduck, Tufted Duck, and endangered White-eyed Pochard.
  • It serves as a food supply, spawning area, and nursery for fish and feeding and nesting ground for a variety of water birds. It is covered in typical swampy vegetation.

Surinsar-Mansar Lakes – Jammu Kashmir

  • In the semi-arid Punjab Plains, next to the Jhelum Basin, a freshwater composite lake with a catchment of sandy conglomeratic soil, rocks, and pebbles.
  • Surinsar is a rain-fed reservoir with no permanent outflow, whereas Mansar is predominantly supplied by surface runoff and partially by mineralised water flowing through rice fields, with inflow rising during the rainy season.
  • This composite lake is nutrient-dense, making it an ideal habitat, breeding ground, and nursery ground for migrating ducks. The place is extremely important socially and culturally, with several temples around it, owing to its mythological origins during the Mahabharata period.

Wular Lake – Jammu & Kashmir

  • Wular Lake is India’s biggest freshwater lake, with enormous marshes of emergent and floating plants, notably water chestnut, that offer a significant source of revenue for the State Government as well as food for domestic animals.
  • The lake is a vital supply of water for agriculture and residential usage, as well as a significant fishing business. The location is vital for winter staging and breeding of birds. Rice agriculture and tree farming are examples of human economic activities done here.

Ramsar Sites in India 

Ramsar Sites in Ladakh

Tso Kar Wetland Complex – Nyoma Block, Leh 

  • This high-altitude wetland complex is located in Ladakh’s Changthang area at more than 4,500 metres above sea level. The complex consists of two linked lakes: the freshwater Startsapuk Tso and the bigger hypersaline Tso Kar.
  • Tso Kar derives its name from the white salt efflorescence on the lake’s borders caused by the evaporation of the salty waters. The environment is dry, and glacier meltwater is the principal supply of water for the lakes. The lakes, and especially the availability of freshwater, attract biodiversity in an otherwise ecologically scarce environment.
  • The site is home to a number of threatened species, including the endangered saker falcon, Asiatic wild dog or dhole, and the vulnerable snow leopard. The site also serves as an important stopping point for migrating birds along the Central Asian Flyway, and it is one of the most significant nesting places in India for the black-necked crane.

Tsomoriri – Eastern Ladakh

  • It is freshwater to the brackish lake located at 4,595m above sea level, surrounded by wet meadows and borax-laden wetlands. The location is the only breeding area outside of China for one of the world’s most endangered cranes, the Black-necked Crane, as well as the only nesting place in India for Barheaded geese. The Tibetan plateau is home to the Great Tibetan Sheep, or Argali, and Tibetan Wild Ass.
  • The location is crossed by ancient commerce routes as well as popular hiking routes. The 400-year-old Korzok monastery draws a large number of visitors. Local Buddhist groups regard the marsh as sacred, and the water is not utilised by them.

Ramsar Sites in India 

Ramsar Sites in Haryana

Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary – Haryana

  • Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary is the largest man-made freshwater Wetland in Haryana State. The wetland was established as a protected area in 1986, and the Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change designated it as an Eco-sensitive zone in 2011. The Sanctuary contributes to maintaining the region’s water table by recharging groundwater and is also a natural flood buffer.
  • Over 250 species use the Sanctuary as a resting and roosting site throughout the year. The site supports more than ten globally threatened species, including the
    • Endangered: Egyptian vulture, steppe eagle, Pallas’s fish eagle and black-bellied tern. 
    • Mammals: Nilgai, common mongoose, and black-naped hare.

Sultanpur National Park – Haryana

  • This small lake, located in the centre of Sultanpur National Park, is fed by overflow from nearby canals and fields, with saline groundwater supplementing it. The lake is surrounded by man-made islands. The MoEFCC designated the area within five kilometres of the Park as an eco-sensitive zone in 2010.
  • The site protects the critically endangered sociable lapwing, as well as the endangered Egyptian vulture, Pallas’s fish eagle, black-bellied tern. Bar-headed goose and greylag goose are also spotted here.

Ramsar Sites in India 

total ramsar sites in india
total ramsar sites in india

Ramsar Sites in Himachal Pradesh

Chandertal Wetland Himachal Pradesh

  • The Chandertal Wetland is a high altitude lake in the upper Chandra valley fed by the Western Himalayan Chandra river. It is near the Kunzam pass, which connects the Himalayan and Pir Panjal mountain ranges.
  • 65% of the bigger watershed is degraded forest due to overgrazing by nomadic herdsmen, while 35% is grasslands.
  • Species: Snow Leopard, Snow Cock, Chukor, Black Ring Stilt, Kestrel, Golden Eagle, Chough, Red Fox, Himalayan Ibex, and Blue Sheep. 
  • As an adaptation strategy to the cold desert temperature, high radiation, and oxygen shortage, many species have developed particular physiological traits over time.

Pong Dam Lake – Himachal Pradesh

  • Pong Dam Lake Wildlife Sanctuary. On the Beas River in the low Himalayan foothills on the northern fringe of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a water storage reservoir was constructed in 1975. It is at the crossroads of the trans-Himalayan flyway.
  • Hydrological benefits of Pong Dam Lake include flood prevention during the monsoon season, both in the immediate vicinity and downstream, as a result of water regulation, groundwater recharge, silt trapping, and soil erosion prevention; electricity generation for H.P and neighbouring states; and irrigation water channelling to fertile areas of the Punjab and Rajasthan deserts.

Renuka Wetland – Himachal Pradesh

  • Renuka Wetland, Wildlife Sanctuary, Reserve Forest. 
  • Renuka Wetland is a naturally occurring wetland with freshwater springs and inland underground karst formations that is fed by a little stream that flows from the lower Himalayas to the Giri river.
  • The lake, which is named after the mother of Hindu sage Parshuram, is frequented by thousands of pilgrims and visitors. 
  • Among ungulates, the region is also rich in Sambhar, Barking deer, and Ghorals.
  • Species of birds: Crimson-breasted barbet, Mayna, Bulbul, Pheasants, Egrets, Herons, Mallards and Lapwing. 

Ramsar Sites in India 

Ramsar Sites in Punjab

Beas Conservation Reserve – Punjab

  • The Beas Conservation Reserve is a 185-kilometre stretch of the Beas River in the northwest corner of the Indian state of Punjab. The Beas River flows down from the Himalayan foothills to the Harike, where it is split into multiple channels. The river is littered with islands, sand bars, and braided channels, resulting in a complex habitat that supports a significant amount of species.
  • Along this stretch, more than 500 bird species have been identified, and it has more than 90 fish species. The Beas Conservation Reserve Reserve is home to India’s only known population of the endangered Indus River dolphin.
    • Endangered: Masheer and hog deer. 
    • Vulnerable: smooth-coated otter. 
    • A campaign to reintroduce the Critically endangered gharial was launched in 2017, with 47 individuals reintroduced into the River 30 years after their absence.

Harike Lake – Punjab

  • At the confluence of two rivers, a shallow water reservoir with thirteen islands. 70% of the lake is covered with dense floating vegetation. It is major breeding, wintering, and staging area for birds, with approximately 200,000 Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans) passing through here during migration. The entire lake is leased to commercial fishing companies on an annual basis.

Kanjli – Punjab

  • The Kali Bein, a permanent stream, was converted into a water storage facility for agricultural purposes in 1870 by constructing a minor barrage.
  • The site is home to a wide range of aquatic, mesophytic, and terrestrial flora and fauna, and it also serves as an important regulator of groundwater recharge. The location is critical for agriculture, which predominates in the surrounding fertile plain, and there are fewer pressures on water supplies than elsewhere in Punjab.
  • From a religious standpoint, the stream is regarded as the most important in the state because it is related to the Sikh guru, Shri Guru Nanak Devji

Keshopur-Miani Community Reserve – Punjab

  • The Keshopur-Miani Community Reserve is in Punjab. The Reserve is a mixture of natural marshes, aquaculture ponds, and agricultural wetlands that are sustained by annual rainfall-runoff. It is extensively influenced by humans and contains several regulated fishponds and cultivated crops such as lotus and chestnut. 
  • The endangered spotted pond turtle and the vulnerable common pochard are among the threatened species.

Nangal Wildlife Sanctuary – Punjab

  • Nangal Wildlife Sanctuary, located in Punjab’s Shiwalik foothills, is home to many flora and fauna, including endangered species such as the Indian pangolin, Egyptian vulture, and vulnerable leopard.
  • The place is historically significant since it was here in 1954 that the Indian and Chinese Prime Ministers codified the “Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence.
  • Over half a million people downstream benefit from the reservoir’s controlled water flow, which reduces the danger of flooding to people and property.

Ropar – Punjab

  • Ropar is a man-made wetland consisting of a lake and a river that was created in 1952 as a result of the construction of a barrage to divert water from the Sutlej River for drinking and agricultural purposes.
  • The habitat is a vital breeding ground for the endangered Indian Pangolin, as well as the nationally protected Smooth Indian Otter, Hog Deer, Sambar, and various reptiles.

Ramsar Sites in India 

ramsar sites of india
ramsar sites of india

Ramsar Sites in Uttar Pradesh

Bakhira Wildlife Sanctuary – Uttar Pradesh

  • The Bakhira Wildlife Sanctuary is a freshwater marsh in the Sant Kabir Nagar district, the largest natural floodplain wetland in eastern Uttar Pradesh. It was established in 1980 and is protected by the Wildlife Protection Act (1972). This Sanctuary is surrounded by an “eco-sensitive zone” with a radius of approximately 1 km. The site is also used for recreation and tourism, and it contributes to food supply and nutrient cycling. The wetland is internationally significant for its birdlife, supporting over 80 species. It is a wintering ground for over 25 species that migrate along the Central Asian Flyway, including the following:
    • Endangered Species: Egyptian vulture
    • Vulnerable Species
      • Greater spotted eagle 
      • common pochard
      • swamp francolin
    • Near-threatened Species
      • Oriental darter
      • woolly-necked stork

Haiderpur Wetland- Uttar Pradesh

  • The Madhya Ganga Barrage, which was built on a floodplain of the Ganga in 1984, created this man-made wetland. It is situated within the Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary. 
  • This unique habitat is home to around 15 globally threatened species, including the critically endangered gharial and the endangered hog deer, as well as the black-bellied tern, steppe eagle, Indian skimmer, and gold mahseer.
  • The place is home to over 25,000 waterbirds, acts as a nesting site for the near-threatened Indian grassbird, and provides a safe haven for the northern subspecies population of the fragile swamp deer during its seasonal flood-driven migration.

Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary – Uttar Pradesh

  • Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary is located in the Hasanganj district of Uttar Pradesh’s Unnao district. It is located around 50 kilometres from Lucknow on the Lucknow-Kanpur route.
  • Monsoon rains sustain this unique wetland, while the Sarda Canal provides extra water. It is a shelter for birds, including globally threatened species such as the Egyptian vulture and Pallas’s fish eagle, and the vulnerable lesser adjutant.

Parvati Arga Bird Sanctuary – Uttar Pradesh

  • The Sanctuary is located in Uttar Pradesh’s Tarabganj Tehsil, approximately 40 kilometres from Gonda District along the Mankapur-Nawabganj Road.
  • The Parvati Arga Bird Sanctuary is a permanent freshwater habitat made up of two oxbow lakes. These wetlands are exclusive to Uttar Pradesh and provide great habitat for waterbirds.
  • The Sanctuary provides a haven for many of India’s threatened vulture species, including the critically endangered white-rumped vulture, the endangered Indian vulture, and the endangered Egyptian vulture.

Saman Bird Sanctuary – Ramsar Sites in India Uttar Pradesh

  • Saman Bird Sanctuary is located near the village of Saman in the Karhal tehsil in the Mainpuri district of Uttar Pradesh. It is a seasonal oxbow lake on the Ganges floodplain. It is strongly dependent on the arrival of the south-westerly monsoon in July and August, which delivers the largest chunk of yearly rainfall.
  • The Sanctuary is particularly significant as a wintering location for a variety of migratory birds, including the greylag goose. There are other vulnerable species present, such as the sarus crane and the greater spotted eagle.

Samaspur Bird Sanctuary – Ramsar Sites in India  Uttar Pradesh

  • In Uttar Pradesh’s Raebareli district, the Samaspur Bird Sanctuary is a perennial lowland marsh typical of the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Its six linked lakes rely primarily on monsoon precipitation.
  • Home to several endangered species, including the Egyptian vulture, Pallas’s fish eagle, and the vulnerable species common pochard.

Sandi Bird Sanctuary – Ramsar Sites in India  Uttar Pradesh

  • Sandi Bird Sanctuary is a freshwater marsh in Uttar Pradesh’s Hardoi district. The wetland is mostly dependent on monsoon rainfall for its water supply. The site’s abundance of aquatic vegetation makes it an ideal home for waterfowl, with over 40,000 individuals documented in 2018.
  • It is a habitat for common teal, red-crested pochard, ferruginous duck, and the vulnerable sarus craneBirdLife International has identified Sandi as an Important Bird Area.

Sarsai Nawarjheel – Ramsar Sites in India  Uttar Pradesh

  • Sarsai Nawarjheel is a perennial marsh in Uttar Pradesh’s Etawah district. This typical Indo-Gangetic floodplain wetland is nourished by precipitation from the SouthwestSouthwest monsoon rains. It demonstrates human-wildlife coexistence: agricultural activities throughout the site play critical roles in preserving waterbird habitats.
  • A notable benefactor is the vulnerable sarus crane, which has a population of 400 individuals and is the region’s largest flock. The name of the site refers to this non-migratory giant sarus crane. Additionally, the critically endangered white-rumped vulture and endangered Woolly-necked stork are present. Birdlife International has designated it an Important Bird Area.

Sur Sarovar – Ramsar Sites in India  Uttar Pradesh

  • Sur Sarovar, also known as Keetham Lake, is a man-made reservoir that was originally built to give water to the city of Agra during the summer. However, the wetland quickly became a significant and diverse ecology. The site offers a diverse combination of habitat types that serves as a haven for both resident and migratory birds.
  • The vulnerable greater spotted eagle, sarus crane, and catfish are among the threatened species. The site is significant for bird species migrating along the Central Asian flyway.

Upper Ganga River – Ramsar Sites in India Uttar Pradesh

  • A shallow river segment of the Ganges with short portions of deep-water pools and reservoirs upstream from barrages. The river is home to the IUCN Red List Ganges River Dolphin, Gharial, Crocodile, six turtle species, and otters.

Ramsar Sites in India 

Ramsar Sites in Uttarakhand

Asan Conservation Reserve – Ramsar Sites in India  Uttarakhand

  • The Asan Conservation Reserve (444-hectare) stretch of land near the Asan River. The Asan Barrage in 1967 created a dam and stopped the flow of the river. This caused the river to become more shallow and led to the creation of bird-friendly habitats. Basically, it is a stretch of the Asan River until its confluence with the Yamuna River in the Dehradun district of Uttarakhand
  • Important Species 
    • Critically endangered: redheaded vulture, white-rumped vulture, and Baer’s pochard.
    • Endangered Fish: Putitor mahseer

Ramsar Sites in India 

Ramsar Sites in Rajasthan

Keoladeo National Park – Ramsar Sites in India  Rajasthan

  • On July 4, 1990, Keoladeo National Park was added to the Montreux Record. Keoladeo is a World Heritage Site, National Park, and Birds Sanctuary all rolled into one. It is a collection of man-made and seasonal lagoons of varied sizes located in a highly-populated area.
  • The vegetation is a mosaic of scrub and open grassland that serves as a breeding, wintering, and staging area for migratory birds.
  • Added to the Montreux Record in 1990 due to “water scarcity and an imbalanced grazing regime.” Furthermore, the invasive development of the grass Paspalum distichum has altered the ecological nature of significant portions of the site, making it unsuitable for certain waterbird species, most notably the Siberian crane.

Sambhar Lake – Ramsar Sites in India  Rajasthan

  • Sambhar Lake is a huge saline lake supplied by four streams that are placed in a shallow wetland and are subject to seasonal variations. It is flanked by sand plains and dry thorn scrub and nourished by seasonal rivers and streams. The habitat is vital for a variety of wintering waterbirds, including large numbers of flamingos. Human activities include salt manufacturing and livestock grazing.

Ramsar Sites in India 

ramsar sites in india upsc
ramsar sites in india upsc

Ramsar Sites in Assam

Deepor Beel – Ramsar Sites in India  Assam.

  • Deepor Beel is a freshwater lake in a former channel of the Brahmaputra river; it serves as the only major stormwater storage basin for Guwahati. 
  • The beel is located on migratory flyways, and some of the highest concentrations of aquatic birds in Assam can be found here, particularly during the winter.
  • Some globally threatened birds are found here: Spot-billed Pelican, Lesser and Greater Adjutant Stork, and Baer’s Pochard. 

Ramsar Sites in India 

Ramsar Sites in Tripura

Rudrasagar Lake – Ramsar Sites in India  Tripura 

  • Rudrasagar Lake is a lowland sedimentation reservoir in the northeast hills that is fed by three perennial streams that go into the Gomti River.
  • The lake is an important home for the IUCN Red-listed Three-striped Roof Turtle, Kachuga dhongka. Because of the frequent rainfall and downstream terrain, the wetland is flooded 4-5 times each year, contributing to groundwater recharge.

Ramsar Sites in India 

Ramsar Sites in Manipur

Loktak Lake – Ramsar Sites in India  Manipur

  • On June 16, 1993, it was added to the Montreux Record. It is a big but diminishing freshwater lake with surrounding swamplands fed by multiple streams. Thick, floating mats of soil-covered weeds (phumids) are a distinguishing feature.
  • The lake is heavily used by locals as a supply of water for irrigation and domestic purposes and also serves as an important wintering and staging habitat for waterbirds, particularly ducks.
  • It is also very significant in flood control. Added to the Montreux Record in 1993 as a result of ecological issues like deforestation in the catchment area, water hyacinth infestation, and pollution. The construction of a dam (hydroelectric power generation) and irrigation has resulted in the extinction of several native fish species in the area.

Ramsar Sites in India 

Ramsar Sites in West Bengal

East Kolkata Wetlands – Ramsar Sites in India  West Bengal

  • It is a World-renowned Wetland as a model of a multiple-use wetland; the site’s resource recovery mechanisms, created over time by local people, have saved the city of Kolkata from the costs of establishing and operating wastewater treatment plants.
  • The wetland serves as an urban facility for treating the city’s wastewater and efficiently utilising the treated water for pisciculture and agriculture through nutrient recovery. The water flows through fish ponds covering approximately 4,000 ha, and the ponds act as solar reactors, completing the majority of their biochemical reactions with the help of solar energy.
  • As a result, the system is defined as “one of the rare examples” of environmental preservation and development management in which local farmers have embraced a complicated ecological approach for managing resource recovery activities.”
East-Kolkata-Wetlands

Sundarban Wetland – Ramsar Sites in India  West Bengal

  • Sundarban Wetland is located inside the Sundarbans, the world’s largest mangrove forest, which consists of hundreds of islands and a network of rivers and creeks in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river deltas.
  • The Indian Sundarban, which covers the delta’s southernmost reaches, accounts for more than 60% of the country’s total mangrove forest area and contains 90% of Indian mangrove species. The Sundarbans are the only mangrove ecosystem with a sizable tiger population having unique water hunting abilities.
  • The site also supports a diverse range of globally threatened species, including the critically endangered northern river terrapin, the endangered Irrawaddy dolphin, and the vulnerable fisher cat.

Ramsar Sites in India 

Ramsar Sites in Bihar

Kabartal Wetland – Ramsar Sites in India – Bihar

  • It is located in the district of Begusarai in the state of Bihar. The Kabartal Wetland, also known as Kanwarjheel, spans 2,620 hectares of the Indo-Gangetic plains in northern Bihar.
  • It is one of 18 wetlands within a large floodplain complex; it floods to a depth of 1.5 metres during the monsoon season. This floodwater absorption is a critical function in Bihar State, where 70% of the land is exposed to floods. Areas of marshland dry off and are used for agriculture during the dry season.
  • The wetland is a critical stopover along the Central Asian Flyway, with 58 migratory waterbirds stopping here to rest and recharge. The location is home to five critically endangered species, namely three vultures (redheaded, white-rumped, and Indian vulture) and two waterbirds (sociable lapwing and Baer’s pochard).

Ramsar Sites in India 

Ramsar Sites in Orissa

Bhitarkanika Mangroves – Ramsar Sites in India Orissa

  • Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary is one of the most beautiful remaining sections of mangrove forest on the Indian coast. Twenty-five years of ongoing conservation efforts have resulted in the site becoming one of the most well-known wildlife sanctuaries.
  • The Site’s Gahirmatha beach is home to the world’s largest known Olive Ridley sea turtle nesting habitat, with 500,000 nestings each year. With over 700 saltwater crocodiles, the site boasts the largest density of saltwater crocodiles in India.
  • Of India’s 58 recorded mangroves species, 55 species are found in Bhitarkanika, a wider mangrove diversity than in the Sundarbans! 
similipal tiger reserve
similipal tiger reserve

Chilika Lake – Ramsar Sites in India  Orissa

  • Chilika Lake is a Brackish Lake separated from the Bay of Bengal by a long sand ridge. It is subject to seawater exchange, which causes extreme changes in salinity in different parts of the lake over the year.
  • Chilika was placed on the Montreux Record in 1993 due to problems caused by siltation and sedimentation, which was closing the lake’s mouth; removed from the Record in 2002 following restoration work for which the Chilika Development Authority earned the Ramsar Wetland Conservation Award in 2002.

Ramsar Sites in India 

Ramsar Sites in Madhya Pradesh

Bhoj Wetland – Ramsar Sites in India Madhya Pradesh

  • It is made up of two lakes that humans made. The “Upper Lake” was made in the 11th century by building an earthen dam across the Kolans River. The “lower lake” was built about 200 years ago, mostly because water leaked from the upper one. The city of Bhopal surrounds it.
  • The lakes are extremely diverse in terms of biodiversity, particularly in terms of macrophytes, phytoplankton, zooplankton, natural and farmed fish species, resident and migratory birds, insects, reptiles, and amphibians.

Ramsar Sites in India 

Ramsar Sites in Maharashtra

National Park in Maharashtra
National Park in Maharashtra

Lonar Lake – Ramsar Sites in India  Maharashtra

  • This Deccan Plateau wetland is an endorheic or closed basin, almost circular in shape, formed by a meteorite impact on the basalt bedrock. The location features a lake, escarpments that form the crater walls, and forested zones.
  • The lake has high salinity and alkalinity due to the lack of an outflow, which causes mineral concentrations when the lake water evaporates. In this hostile chemical environment, specialised microorganisms such as anaerobes, cyanobacteria, and phytoplankton thrive.
  • Outside the lake, there is a wide range of plant and animal life and springs that feed the lake with fresh water. The habitat is home to 160 bird species, including the endangered Asian woolly neck and common pochard.

Nandur Madhameshwar – Ramsar Sites in India  Maharashtra

  • On the Deccan Plateau, the site is a mix of lakes, marshes, and riparian forests. The construction of the Nandur Madhameshwar at the junction of the Godavari and Kadva Rivers aided in the creation of a thriving wetland: originally intended to alleviate water shortages in the surrounding region; the site now acts as a flood barrier and a biodiversity hotspot.
  • Its diversified ecosystems contrast with the surrounding semi-arid conditions induced by the Western Ghats mountain range’s rain shadow effect. The site is home to some of India’s most recognisable species, including the leopard and Indian sandalwood. It also serves as a haven for critically endangered species such as the Deolali minnow, Indian vulture, and white-rumped vulture.

Ramsar Sites in India 

Ramsar Sites in Gujarat

Khijadia Wildlife Sanctuary – Ramsar Sites in India  Gujarat

  • The Khijadia Wildlife Sanctuary is located in Gujarat’s Jamnagar district. This freshwater wetland near the coast of the Gulf of Kutch in Gujarat State was developed after the construction of a bund (dike) to protect farms from saltwater ingress in 1920.
  • The site, as one of the most important waterbird habitats in North-West India, provides nesting, feeding, and roosting areas for a diverse range of resident aquatic and land-based species.
  • These include the critically endangered Pallas’s fish-eagle and Indian skimmer, as well as the endangered common pochard.

Nalsarovar Bird Sanctuary – Ramsar Sites in India  Gujarat

  • natural freshwater lake (a relict sea) that is the Thar Desert’s largest natural wetland and exhibits a dynamic habitat with fluctuating salinity and depth depending on rainfall.
  • It is a crucial stopover site along the Central Asia Flyway, with globally threatened species, including the critically endangered Sociable Lapwing and also the vulnerable Marbled Teal stopping by during migration, and the vulnerable Sarus Crane taking refuge in during the summer since other water bodies are dry. The wetland also serves as a lifeline for a small population of the critically endangered Indian Wild Ass, which uses this habitat during the dry season.

Thol Lake Wildlife Sanctuary – Ramsar Sites in India  Gujarat

  • The region is located in Gujarat’s Mehsana district. This small reservoir, which is characterised by open water regions, was built in 1912 for agricultural purposes.
  • It was designated a wildlife sanctuary in 1988 to safeguard the birds present there: it is located on the Central Asian Flyway and is home to around 320 bird species, accounting for approximately 57% of Gujarat’s bird species.
  • Species: The critically endangered white-rumped vulture and sociable lapwing, as well as the vulnerable sarus cranecommon pochard, and lesser white-fronted geese, can be found here. It is also vital for a population of blackbuck and other animals in the surrounding region during the dry seasons.

Wadhvana Wetland – Ramsar Sites in India  Gujarat

  • It is situated in Dabhoi Tehsil, Vadodara district, 45 kilometres from Vadodara city and 15 kilometres from Dabhoi town. The old Baroda State built this reservoir around 1910. It is situated in a semi-arid agricultural terrain, surrounded by wheat and paddy fields as well as communities.
  • The wetland is internationally important for its birdlife because it provides a wintering habitat for migratory waterbirds, including more than 80 species that pass through the Central Asian Flyway. The endangered Pallas’s fish-eagle, the vulnerable common pochard, and the near-threatened Dalmatian pelican, grey-headed fish eagle, and ferruginous duck can all be found here. The vulnerable river tern and sarus crane, as well as the near-threatened black-necked stork, are among the resident species.

Ramsar Sites in India 

ramsar sites in india
ramsar sites in india

Ramsar Sites in Andhra Pradesh

Kolleru Lake – Ramsar Sites in India  Andhra Pradesh

  • It is a Wildlife Sanctuary. A natural eutrophic lake located between the Godavari and Krishna river basins, supplied by two seasonal rivers and a variety of drains and streams, it serves as a natural flood balancing reservoir between the two river deltas.
  • It supports fisheries, agriculture, and other related occupations in the area, as well as habitat for a variety of resident and migratory species, including dwindling populations of the vulnerable Grey Pelican.

Ramsar Sites in Tamil Nadu

As of Aug 2022, The state of Tamil Nadu has the most Ramsar sites in India (14), followed by the state of Uttar Pradesh with ten sites. The latest addition of Ramsar sites in India from the state of Tamil Nadu is already cover in the start of the article

Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary – Tamil Nadu

  • Tamil Nadu’s Point Calimere Wildlife & Bird Sanctuary. A coastal area comprised of shallow waters, coastlines, extensive sand bars, intertidal flats and forests, mangroves, saline lagoons, and human-made salt extraction sites.
  • Vulnerable species: Spoonbill Sandpiper and Grey Pelican, as well as around 30,000 Greater and Lesser Flamingos, are found here. The location is a breeding ground or nursery for a variety of commercially valuable fish species, as well as prawns and crabs. Around the Sanctuary’s perimeter, some 35,000 fishermen and agriculturalists maintain their families.

Ramsar Sites in India 

Ramsar Sites in Kerala

National park in Kerala
National park in Kerala

Ashtamudi Wetland – Ramsar Sites in India  Kerala

It is a vast estuarine system, the second largest in Kerala, with diverse fauna. It is a significant fishing place in the region, with various fish. The Ashtamudi Wetland site is home to various mangrove species and over 40 related plant species, and 57 kinds of birds, including six migratory species. A thriving fishing economy is supported by approximately 100 species of fish, with thousands of fishermen relying directly on the estuary for a living.

Sasthamkotta Lake – Ramsar Sites in India  Kerala

  • Sasthamkotta Lake is Kerala’s largest freshwater lake. Spring-fed and providing drinking water to 500,000 people in the Kollam area. The water is free of ordinary salts and minerals and is devoid of water plants; instead, a larva known as “cavaborus” thrives and removes germs from the water, adding to its extraordinary purity.

Vembanad-Kol Wetland – Ramsar Sites in India  Kerala 

  • It is the biggest brackish, humid tropical wetland ecosystem on India’s southwest coast, with ten rivers feeding it. The Vembanad-Kol Wetland is famous for its clams and is home to the country’s third-largest waterfowl population during the winter months.
  • It protects the densely populated coastal portions of three districts in Kerala from flooding. It is a substantial groundwater recharger that contributes to the region’s well water supply, and the system’s value for local people and trade is enormous.

In conclusion, the Ramsar sites in India are of great importance for a variety of reasons. They are crucial for the conservation of many species of plants and animals, they help to regulate regional water cycles, and they support local communities and economies. It is vital that we do everything we can to protect these invaluable resources, and we urge everyone to learn more about them and support their conservation.

This was a brief about Ramsar sites in India UPSC. All the data has been sourced from official sources and utmost care has been taken to maintain accuracy of the data, Still there some error, Kindly comment below to let us know.

If you want to learn more about Ramsar convention you can refer to the Official Ramsar Website: https://www.ramsar.org/


unesco world heritage sites
unesco world heritage sites

Checkout the Latest 40 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India.

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11 Comments

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