Comprehensive covered Coal in India with Map 2021 | Types of coal

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This article is about Coal in India, Types of Coal Found in India, Major coalfields in India, Coalfield Map of India, We will also look at the Power generation in India Fuelwise in 2021. India is facing a coal shortage recently which is impacting India’s Power generation capacity also, We will also discuss the factor responsible for the shortage of coal in India. The article contains two maps- Coal Map of India, Thermal Power Plants in India Map, which you can also download from the link at the end of the article. Now let’s jump on the topic.

India’s coal-based thermal power plants account for 208.8 GW or 54% of India’s 388 GW installed power generation capacity. Most of the India’s power is generated from coal, the State-owned Coal India fullfills 80-85 per cent of the coal needs of India, while the rest are met through imports. 

India have the fifth-largest coal reserves in the world. Also, India is the third-largest importer of coal in the world.

The Chart Below shows the Total Power Generation in India Fuelwise as of 31 August 2021 (Source: Ministry of Power Government Of India)

Power generation in india fuelwise

CATAGORYINSTALLED GENERATION CAPACITY (MW)% of SHARE IN Total
Fossil Fuel2,34,85860.90%
Coal2,02,80552.60%
Lignite6,6201.70%
Gas24,9246.50%
Diesel5100.10%
Total Fossil Fuel2,34,25860.40%
Non-Fossil Fuel
Renewable Energy Sources (Incl. Hydro)1,47,09637.90%
Hydro46,41212.00%
Wind, Solar & Other RE1,00,68325.90%
Nuclear6,7801.70%
Total Non-Fossil Fuel1,53,87639.60%
Total Installed Capacity3,88,134100%
(Fossil Fuel & Non-Fossil Fuel)
power generation in india
power generation in india

Coal in India

So you can see clearly how important coal is for the Indian economy. Now Let’s dive into the basics details about the coal found in India.

  • Coal is a sedimentary, organic rock that is flammable composed primarily of carbon along with other elements such as hydrogen, sulphur, oxygen, and nitrogen. Coal is used mostly in the generation of thermal power and smelting of iron ore. Coal is known as black gold. India faces a shortage of good quality coking coal, So India partially imports good grade coking coal for the iron and steel industry. 
  • The Largest coal reserves found in India are in following states: 

Jharkhand>ODISHA>Chhattisgarh>West Bengal>Madhya Pradesh>Andhra Pradesh

Formation Of Coal

  • Coal is formed from dead plant remains.
  • These dead plants remains get compressed under the soil beneath rocks in a low oxygen environment.
  • Due to high pressure and heat, this organic matter gets converted into Peat(partially decayed organic matter).
  • This peat is converted into low carbon coal i.e., lignite.
  • More heat and pressure convert lignite into bituminous coal and then finally into anthracite.

Types of Coal in India

Coal in India can be studied by classifying it into a different category based on its content, Usage and Origin. Let us see each division one by one

Types of Coal based on carbon content and order of formation

  • PEAT– This type of coal contains about 40% CARBON. It is found in North-East India.
  • LIGNITE– The Carbon content of Lignite coal is 40-60% CARBON. It is considered Low-Quality coal and is Brown- Lignite Coal is found in Neyveli in Tamil Nadu.
  • BITUMINOUS– CARBON Content of Bituminous is 60-80%. It is soft coal and the coal found in India is mostly of the Bituminous category.
  • ANTHRACITE– It contains the highest amount of carbon 80-90%. It is mainly found in the Reasi district in Jammu and Kashmir.

Types of Coal based on usage

  • Coking coal– It contains High carbon content and has less moisture, less sulphur and less ash content. Coking Coal forms coke when heated in the absence of air. It is used in the iron and steel industry to make pig iron.
  • Non-Coking coal– It is used in thermal power plants to generate power. Sulphur content in Non-Coking Coal is high that’s why it cannot be used in the iron and steel industry.

Types of Coal in India based on origin

Gondwana Coal

  • Gondwana coal is about 250 million years old.
  • The most important Gondwana coal in India is found exclusively in the peninsular plateau especially in Damodar, Godavari, Mahanadi and Sone valley
  • Jharia (JH) is the largest coalfield in India followed by Raniganj (WB).
  • Other important coal-mining centres are:
Jharkhand Jharia, Giridih, Karanpura, Ramgarh, Bokara, Daltonganj
OdishaTalcher, Rampur
Madhya Pradesh Umaria, Sohagpur, Singrauli
ChhattisgarhCorba, Chirimiri, Jhilimili, Bishrampur
West BengalRaniganj, Mejia
Andhra PradeshSingareni, Tandur, Kothagudem, Yellandu
MaharashtraWardha, Ballarpur, Chanda, Kampati
Uttar PradeshKakri, Bina, Dhughichua, Kharia

Tertiary coal

  • Tertiary coal is 15 – 60 million years old.
  • Tertiary coal fields are found in following states of India
Sikkim
Meghalaya
Assam
Arunachal Pradesh
Nagaland

Coal fields in India

The Map showing the important Coal fields in India

coal mines in india map
coal mines in india map

Coal Crisis in India

Thermal power plants in India are facing a severe coal shortage, the coal stocks reserve has come down to an average of four days of fuel across a large number of thermal power stations.

  • the government recommendation is that thermal power plants should hold 14 days worth of coal stock.
  • This shortage of coal is more severe in non-pithead plants or plants which are located far from coal mines.
  • Coal-based thermal power plants in India accounts for 208.8 GW or 54 per cent of India’s 388 GW installed generation capacity as shown above also.

The Main Reasons behind India’s coal shortage –

  • As the Indian economy is recovering from the Covid-19 Pandemic a sharp rise in power demand combined with supply issues have led to the current coal shortage across the power plants in India.
  • Other reasons for the supply crunch is lower than usual stock accumulation by thermal power plants in the April-June 2021 period and the continuous rainfall in coal reserve areas in August and September 2021, which led to lower production and fewer despatches of coal from coal mines.
  • High international prices of coal have also led to power plants cutting imports which also increased the problem.

Thermal power plant in India

The Map showing Thermal Power Plants in India (Learn about the Ports in India with Map)

thermal power plants india map
thermal power plants india map

Major thermal power plants in india

Power PlantLocationState
Amarkantak TPSChachaiMadhya Pradesh
Anta Thermal Power StationAntaRajasthan
Arasmeta CPP (private)JanjgirChattisgarh
Auraiya Thermal Power StationDibiyapurUttar Pradesh
Badarpur TPPBadarpurNCT Delhi
Bakreswar TPSSuriWest Bengal
Barauni TPPBarauniBihar
Bellary TPPKudatiniKarnataka
Bhusawal TPSDeepnagarMaharastra
Bokarao Thermal Power Station 'B'BokaroJharkhand
Chandrapura Thermal Power StationChandrapuraJharkhand
Chhabra STPPMothipuraRajasthan
Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram TPPYamunanagarHaryana
Dr Narla Tatarao TPSIbrahimpatnamTelangana
Durgapur Thermal Power StationDurgapurWest Bengal
Ennore TPSEnnoreTamilnadu
Farakka STPSNagarunWest Bengal
Faridabad Thermal Power PlantMujediHaryana
Feroz Gandhi Unchahar TPPUnchaharUttar Pradesh
Gandhinagar TPSGandhinagarGujarat
Giral Lignite TPSThumbliRajasthan
Guru Gobind SSTPGhanauliPunjab
Harduaganj TPSHarduaganjUttar Pradesh
IB Thermal ppBanharpaliOrissa
Indraprashta PSDelhiNCT Delhi
JSW Vijanagar PP-II (private)VijaynagarKarnataka
Kahalgaon STPSKahalgaonBihar
Kaparkheda TPSKaparkhedaMaharastra
Korba STPPJamani PalliChattisgarh
Kutch Lignite TPSPanandhroGujarat
Mettur TPSMetturdamTamilnadu
Nashik TPSNashikMaharastra
Neyveli TPS 1NeyveliTamilnadu
North Chennai TPSAthipattuTamilnadu
Obra TPSObraUttar Pradesh
Panipat TPP 2AssanHaryana
Panki TPSPankiUttar Pradesh
Paras TPSVidyutnagarMaharastra
Pariccha TPSParicchaUttar Pradesh
Ramagundam STPSJyothi NagarTelangana
Rayalaseema TPSCuddapahTelangana
Rihand TPPRihand NagarUttar Pradesh
Rosa TPP (private)RosaUttar Pradesh
Sabarmati TPS (Private)AhamadabadGujarat
Satpura TPSSarniMadhya Pradesh
Sikka TPSJamnagarGujarat
Singrauli Super Thermal Power StationShaktinagarUttar Pradesh
Sipat TPPSipatChattisgarh
Surat Lignite TPSNani NaroliGujarat
Talcher TPPTalcherOrissa
Tanda TPPVidyutnagarUttar Pradesh
Tuticorin TPSTuticorinTamilnadu
Ukai TPSUkai damGujarat
Vindhyachal STPSVidhya NagarMadhya Pradesh
Wanakbori TPSWanakboriGujarat

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