This article is about Coal in India, Types of Coal Found in India, Major coalfields in India, Coalfield Map of India, We will also look at the Power generation in India Fuelwise in 2021. India is facing a coal shortage recently which is impacting India’s Power generation capacity also, We will also discuss the factor responsible for the shortage of coal in India. The article contains two maps- Coal Map of India, Thermal Power Plants in India Map, which you can also download from the link at the end of the article. Now let’s jump on the topic.
India’s coal-based thermal power plants account for 208.8 GW or 54% of India’s 388 GW installed power generation capacity. Most of the India’s power is generated from coal, the State-owned Coal India fullfills 80-85 per cent of the coal needs of India, while the rest are met through imports.
India have the fifth-largest coal reserves in the world. Also, India is the third-largest importer of coal in the world.
The Chart Below shows the Total Power Generation in India Fuelwise as of 31 August 2021 (Source: Ministry of Power Government Of India)
Table of Contents
Power generation in india fuelwise
|CATAGORY||INSTALLED GENERATION CAPACITY (MW)||% of SHARE IN Total|
|Total Fossil Fuel||2,34,258||60.40%|
|Renewable Energy Sources (Incl. Hydro)||1,47,096||37.90%|
|Wind, Solar & Other RE||1,00,683||25.90%|
|Total Non-Fossil Fuel||1,53,876||39.60%|
|Total Installed Capacity||3,88,134||100%|
|(Fossil Fuel & Non-Fossil Fuel)|
Coal in India
So you can see clearly how important coal is for the Indian economy. Now Let’s dive into the basics details about the coal found in India.
- Coal is a sedimentary, organic rock that is flammable composed primarily of carbon along with other elements such as hydrogen, sulphur, oxygen, and nitrogen. Coal is used mostly in the generation of thermal power and smelting of iron ore. Coal is known as black gold. India faces a shortage of good quality coking coal, So India partially imports good grade coking coal for the iron and steel industry.
- The Largest coal reserves found in India are in following states:
Formation Of Coal
- Coal is formed from dead plant remains.
- These dead plants remains get compressed under the soil beneath rocks in a low oxygen environment.
- Due to high pressure and heat, this organic matter gets converted into Peat(partially decayed organic matter).
- This peat is converted into low carbon coal i.e., lignite.
- More heat and pressure convert lignite into bituminous coal and then finally into anthracite.
Types of Coal in India
Coal in India can be studied by classifying it into a different category based on its content, Usage and Origin. Let us see each division one by one
Types of Coal based on carbon content and order of formation
- PEAT– This type of coal contains about 40% CARBON. It is found in North-East India.
- LIGNITE– The Carbon content of Lignite coal is 40-60% CARBON. It is considered Low-Quality coal and is Brown- Lignite Coal is found in Neyveli in Tamil Nadu.
- BITUMINOUS– CARBON Content of Bituminous is 60-80%. It is soft coal and the coal found in India is mostly of the Bituminous category.
- ANTHRACITE– It contains the highest amount of carbon 80-90%. It is mainly found in the Reasi district in Jammu and Kashmir.
Types of Coal based on usage
- Coking coal– It contains High carbon content and has less moisture, less sulphur and less ash content. Coking Coal forms coke when heated in the absence of air. It is used in the iron and steel industry to make pig iron.
- Non-Coking coal– It is used in thermal power plants to generate power. Sulphur content in Non-Coking Coal is high that’s why it cannot be used in the iron and steel industry.
Types of Coal in India based on origin
- Gondwana coal is about 250 million years old.
- The most important Gondwana coal in India is found exclusively in the peninsular plateau especially in Damodar, Godavari, Mahanadi and Sone valley
- Jharia (JH) is the largest coalfield in India followed by Raniganj (WB).
- Other important coal-mining centres are:
|Jharkhand||Jharia, Giridih, Karanpura, Ramgarh, Bokara, Daltonganj|
|Madhya Pradesh||Umaria, Sohagpur, Singrauli|
|Chhattisgarh||Corba, Chirimiri, Jhilimili, Bishrampur|
|West Bengal||Raniganj, Mejia|
|Andhra Pradesh||Singareni, Tandur, Kothagudem, Yellandu|
|Maharashtra||Wardha, Ballarpur, Chanda, Kampati|
|Uttar Pradesh||Kakri, Bina, Dhughichua, Kharia|
- Tertiary coal is 15 – 60 million years old.
- Tertiary coal fields are found in following states of India
Coal fields in India
The Map showing the important Coal fields in India
Coal Crisis in India
Thermal power plants in India are facing a severe coal shortage, the coal stocks reserve has come down to an average of four days of fuel across a large number of thermal power stations.
- the government recommendation is that thermal power plants should hold 14 days worth of coal stock.
- This shortage of coal is more severe in non-pithead plants or plants which are located far from coal mines.
- Coal-based thermal power plants in India accounts for 208.8 GW or 54 per cent of India’s 388 GW installed generation capacity as shown above also.
The Main Reasons behind India’s coal shortage –
- As the Indian economy is recovering from the Covid-19 Pandemic a sharp rise in power demand combined with supply issues have led to the current coal shortage across the power plants in India.
- Other reasons for the supply crunch is lower than usual stock accumulation by thermal power plants in the April-June 2021 period and the continuous rainfall in coal reserve areas in August and September 2021, which led to lower production and fewer despatches of coal from coal mines.
- High international prices of coal have also led to power plants cutting imports which also increased the problem.
Thermal power plant in India
Major thermal power plants in india
|Amarkantak TPS||Chachai||Madhya Pradesh|
|Anta Thermal Power Station||Anta||Rajasthan|
|Arasmeta CPP (private)||Janjgir||Chattisgarh|
|Auraiya Thermal Power Station||Dibiyapur||Uttar Pradesh|
|Badarpur TPP||Badarpur||NCT Delhi|
|Bakreswar TPS||Suri||West Bengal|
|Bokarao Thermal Power Station 'B'||Bokaro||Jharkhand|
|Chandrapura Thermal Power Station||Chandrapura||Jharkhand|
|Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram TPP||Yamunanagar||Haryana|
|Dr Narla Tatarao TPS||Ibrahimpatnam||Telangana|
|Durgapur Thermal Power Station||Durgapur||West Bengal|
|Farakka STPS||Nagarun||West Bengal|
|Faridabad Thermal Power Plant||Mujedi||Haryana|
|Feroz Gandhi Unchahar TPP||Unchahar||Uttar Pradesh|
|Giral Lignite TPS||Thumbli||Rajasthan|
|Guru Gobind SSTP||Ghanauli||Punjab|
|Harduaganj TPS||Harduaganj||Uttar Pradesh|
|IB Thermal pp||Banharpali||Orissa|
|Indraprashta PS||Delhi||NCT Delhi|
|JSW Vijanagar PP-II (private)||Vijaynagar||Karnataka|
|Korba STPP||Jamani Palli||Chattisgarh|
|Kutch Lignite TPS||Panandhro||Gujarat|
|Neyveli TPS 1||Neyveli||Tamilnadu|
|North Chennai TPS||Athipattu||Tamilnadu|
|Obra TPS||Obra||Uttar Pradesh|
|Panipat TPP 2||Assan||Haryana|
|Panki TPS||Panki||Uttar Pradesh|
|Pariccha TPS||Pariccha||Uttar Pradesh|
|Ramagundam STPS||Jyothi Nagar||Telangana|
|Rihand TPP||Rihand Nagar||Uttar Pradesh|
|Rosa TPP (private)||Rosa||Uttar Pradesh|
|Sabarmati TPS (Private)||Ahamadabad||Gujarat|
|Satpura TPS||Sarni||Madhya Pradesh|
|Singrauli Super Thermal Power Station||Shaktinagar||Uttar Pradesh|
|Surat Lignite TPS||Nani Naroli||Gujarat|
|Tanda TPP||Vidyutnagar||Uttar Pradesh|
|Ukai TPS||Ukai dam||Gujarat|
|Vindhyachal STPS||Vidhya Nagar||Madhya Pradesh|
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