jim corbett national park

Beautiful Jim Corbett National Park in 2022 [MAP]

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Jim Corbett National Park—named after the hunter turned conservationist Jim Corbett who played a key role in its establishment—is the oldest national park in India. Jim Corbett National Park was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park. It is situated in the Nainital district of Uttarakhand. It is part of the larger Corbett Tiger Reserve which was first to come under the Project Tiger initiative launched in 1973.

Jim Corbett National Park

  • Jim Corbett Tiger Reserve lies in the ecologically important Bhabar-Terai Region, on the southern part of the Shivalik Mountains in northern India. 
  • Jim Corbett National Park is located in the Kumaon and Pauri-Garhwal Regions of Uttarakhand State. 
  • The geographical extent of the area is from 78°05’E to 79°08’E longitude and 29°25’N to 29°48’N latitude.
  • Jim Corbett National Park was established as Hailey National Park in 1936 and it is India’s oldest national park.
  • The park is located in the foothills of the Central Himalayas—about 50 km northwest of Ramnagar.
  • It mainly occupies the broad Patlidoon Valley, through which the Ramganga River flows in a westerly direction.
  • The park has a high density of tigers (Panthera tigris) and a sizeable population of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

The Jim Corbett Tiger Reserve is located inside the ecologically valuable Bhabar-Terai Region, a stretch of land in northern India that skirts the southern part of the Shivalik Mountains. It is situated in the foothills of the Central Himalayan mountains in Uttarakhand’s Kumaon and Pauri-Garhwal regions. The geographical boundaries of Jim Corbett Tiger Reserve are 78°05’E to 79°08’E longitude and 29°25’N to 29°48’N latitude. The area’s vegetation is a mix of dry and moist deciduous forest, scrub savannah, and alluvial grassland.

The area contains five broad vegetation communities:

  • (1) sal (Shorea rototaj-dominated forest),
  • (2) sal mixed forest,
  • (3) riverine forest,
  • (4) mixed or miscellaneous forest, and
  • (5) plantation.
  • There are also two other types of vegetation: grassland and open scrub.

S. robusta is the most common and widespread species found in the Jim Corbett Reserve, followed by Mallotus philippensis and Syzygium cumini. Plantations, including Tectona grandis and Dalbergia sissoo, are an important part of the landscape. The park’s fauna is rich and diverse, with 50 species of mammals, 575 species of birds, 33 species of reptiles, and 7 species of amphibians. The park is home to a large number of tigers (Panthera tigris) and an Asian elephant population (Elephas maximus).

The reserve’s management objectives include biodiversity conservation and the preservation of the area’s naturalness for scientific, educational, and recreational purposes. There are no human settlements in the core zone of Jim Corbett Tiger Reserve, but there are 92 villages within 3 kilometres of the reserve’s boundary.

The majority of people in and around the reserve rely on buffer-zone forests for fuel wood and fodder, as well as grazing livestock. Following the declaration of the entire national park as a core zone of the tiger reserve, some villages were left on the outskirts of the core zone. The buffer forests also provide habitat for wildlife that has migrated from the core zone. This increased interaction between humans, livestock, and wildlife has resulted in crop raiding, livestock predation, and human fatalities.

Geographical Features of Jim Corbett National Park

  • Patli Dun valley formed by the Ramganga river lies inside the park.
  • Park consists of hills, riverine belts, marshy depressions, grasslands and a large lake.
  • The geographical and ecological characteristics of the park have sub-Himalayan characteristics.

Flora & Fauna in Jim Corbett National Park

Jim Corbett National Park has about 110 tree species, 50 mammals species, 580 bird species and 25 reptile species.

  • Corbett Park is well known for its tiger richness.
  • Elephants
  • Leopards
  • barking deer
  • sambar deer
  • hog deer
  • Chital
  • Sloth
  • Himalayan black bears
  • Indian grey mongoose
  • Otters
  • Martens
  • Himalayan goral
  • Indian pangolins

The vegetation of the Jim Corbett National Park is a mosaic of dry and moist deciduous forest, scrub savannah and alluvial grassland. Grassland and open scrub, are also found in the Park. The most dominant and widely distributed species is Sal. Forest covers 73% area of the park and 10% of the area consists of grasslands.

Five broad vegetation communities are found in the Jim Corbett National Park:

  1. Sal – most abundant,
  2. Sal mixed forest,
  3. Riverine forest,
  4. Mixed or miscellaneous forest.
  5. Plantation.

Some common Species of these forests are:

  • Sal
  • Haldu
  • Peepal
  • Rohini
  • Mango trees.
jim corbett national park map
jim corbett national park map

Other Important protected areas in Uttarakhand are listed in the table below

National Parks in Uttarakhand

S.No.Protected AreaArea (km2)Formation Year
1Corbett National Park520.821936
2Nanda Devi National Park624.601982
3Valley of Flowers National Park87.501982
4Rajaji National Park820.421983
5Gangotri National Park2390.021989
6Govind National Park472.081990

Wildlife Sanctuaries in Uttarakhand

S.No.Protected AreaArea (km2)Formation Year
1Govind wildlife sanctuary485.891955
2Kedarnath wildlife sanctuary975.201972
3Askot wildlife sanctuary599.931986
4Sonanadi wildlife sanctuary301.181987
5Binsar wildlife sanctuary47.071988
6Mussoorie wildlife sanctuary10.821993
7Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary269.952012

Conservation Reserves in Uttarakhand

S.No.Protected AreaArea (km2)Formation Year
1Jhilmil Jheel Conservation Reserve37.842005
2Aasan Wetland Conservation Reserve4.442005
3Pawalgarh Conservation Reserve5.822012
4Nainadevi Himalayan Bird Conservation Reserve111.912015

Biosphere Reserve in Uttarakhand

S.No.Protected Area
1Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve

This was about the Jim Corbett National Park, to learn more about other protected areas in Uttarakhand see this article on National Parks in Uttarakhand

Useful Links

Forest department of Uttarakhand

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