Green Hydrogen in India

Discover all about Green Hydrogen in India’s future! 2022

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Green Hydrogen in India

Before discussing Green Hydrogen in India, It is critical to know where the Hydrogen originates from. At present, it is mostly manufactured industrially from natural gas, which emits substantial amounts of carbon dioxide. This is referred to as “grey” hydrogen. “Blue” Hydrogen is a cleaner variant in which carbon emissions are caught and stored or utilised. The cleanest of all is “green” Hydrogen, which is produced from renewable energy sources without emitting any carbon emissions.

Some of the Climate and Energy Target set by India are

  • At the COP 27 UN climate summit in EgyptIndia presented its long-term low-emission development strategy, which focuses on climate justice, sustainable lifestyles, and equity, joining a limited club of fewer than 60 nations to do so. Green Hydrogen in India can play a vital role in achieving the target.
  • As part of the 2015 Paris Agreement, India vowed to produce 40% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2030.
  • According to the IEA, India is the world’s fourth-biggest energy consumer (after China, the United States, and the European Union), and it will surpass the European Union to become the world’s largest in the near future. By 2030, India will be the world’s third-largest user of energy.
  • The new National Policy on Biofuels set a goal of 20% ethanol in petrol and 5% biodiesel in diesel by 2030.
  • Reduce its ’emissions intensity,’ or emissions per unit of GDP, by 45 per cent by 2030 compared to 2005 levels.
  • The Indian Prime Minister said at COP 26 in Glasgow that India will have 500 GW of non-fossil fuel-based energy capacity by 2030.
  • India has set a target of NetZero Emission by 2070.

Prospects of the Green Hydrogen industry

  • According to market research firm Precedence Research, the worldwide green hydrogen market was worth $1.83 billion in 2021 and is anticipated to be worth more than $89.18 billion by 2030, rising at a compound annual growth rate of up to 54% from 2021 to 2030.
  • The Asia-Pacific region is the green hydrogen market’s fastest-growing region.

Cost of production of Green Hydrogen in India

  • Hydrogen generated from renewable resources costs between $3 and $6.55 per kilogramme, compared to $1.80 per kg for hydrogen produced from fossil fuels.
  • Green hydrogen generation costs roughly Rs 500 per kilogramme in India.
  • Through its regulatory actions, the government intends to cut the cost of producing green hydrogen by 40-50%.

Benefits of Green Hydrogen in India

India is one of the world’s most populous countries, with over 138 crores (2020) people living within its borders. However, given the country’s large population and growing energy needs, renewables are essential to India’s future energy security. Hydrogen is a clean, renewable energy source that can play an important role in India’s energy future.

Hydrogen has many potential benefits for India, including reducing greenhouse gas emissions and providing rural areas with access to sustainable energy.

To reduce carbon emissions and boost domestic production of green Hydrogen to 5 million tonnes by 2030. India announced the green hydrogen/ ammonia policy and the National Green Hydrogen Mission.


The first element in the periodic table. Under normal circumstances, it is a colourless, odourless, and tasteless gas generated by diatomic molecules, H2. 

The hydrogen atom, symbol H, is made up of a nucleus with one unit of positive charge and one electron. It has the atomic number 1 and the atomic weight of 1,00797 g/mol. 

It is one of the primary components of water and all biological things, and it is found not just on Earth but also throughout the Universe

There are three hydrogen isotopes: 

  • Protium, mass 1, which makes up more than 99,985 per cent of the natural element; 
  • Deuterium, mass 2, which makes up approximately 0.015 per cent of the natural element; 
  • Tritium, mass 3, appears in small quantities in nature but can be produced artificially through various nuclear reactions.

Uses of Hydrogen

The most significant use of Hydrogen is in ammonia production. The use of Hydrogen in fuel refining, such as hydrocracking (hydrocracking), and sulphur removal, is rapidly expanding. Hydrogen is used extensively in the catalytic hydrogenation of unsaturated vegetable oils to produce solid fat. Hydrogenation is utilised in the production of organic chemicals. Huge amounts of Hydrogen are used as rocket fuels, in conjunction with oxygen, and as a nuclear-powered rocket propellant.

Hydrogen is emerging as an important source of energy since it has zero carbon content and is a non-polluting source of energy in contrast to hydrocarbons that have a net carbon content in the range of 75-85 per cent. It has the highest energy content by weight and lowest energy content by volume. As per International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Hydrogen shall make up six per cent of total energy consumption by 2050.

Green Hydrogen in India
Green Hydrogen in India

What are Grey Hydrogen, Blue Hydrogen and Green Hydrogen

Hydrogen is mostly utilised in the petrochemical and fertiliser industries and is generally created from natural gas, emitting massive volumes of carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is classified into three groups based on the process of extraction, namely grey, blue, and green. There is a rising emphasis on boosting green and blue hydrogen generation due to its zero carbon emissions and usage of carbon offset technologies, respectively.  

  • When hydrogen is ignited, it produces simply water. However, creating it can be carbon-intensive.
  • Scientists allocate colours based on the technique of hydrogen creation.
  • Depending on the manner of generation, hydrogen can be grey, blue, or green – and occasionally pink, yellow, or turquoise.
  • Green hydrogen is the only form that is created in an environmentally friendly manner.
  • It might be critical in worldwide efforts to achieve net zero emissions by 2050.

Types of hydrogen fuel

The production of molecular Hydrogen requires energy. The energy source and technique of production utilised to create molecular Hydrogen decide whether it is categorised as grey hydrogen, blue Hydrogen, or green Hydrogen. Hydrogen may be produced from natural gas, coal, or biomass; however, each of these energy sources emits greenhouse gases. An electrolysis procedure is used to divide water into oxygen and Hydrogen; such produced Hydrogen is called the Green Hydrogen.

Black, Brown and Grey hydrogen

Grey hydrogen is Hydrogen created from fossil fuels like natural gas or coal. Grey hydrogen accounts for about 95% of all Hydrogen generated in the world today. Steam methane reforming and coal gasification are the two primary techniques of production. Carbon dioxide is produced by both of these processes (CO2). If carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere, the resulting Hydrogen is known as grey hydrogen. Grey hydrogen is not a zero-emission fuel.

  • Grey hydrogen is the most prevalent kind and is produced from natural gas, or methane, by a process known as “steam reforming.”
  • This technology emits fewer pollutants than black or brown hydrogen, which employs black (bituminous) or brown (lignite) coal in the hydrogen-production process.
  • Because the CO2 and carbon monoxide produced during the process are not collected, black or brown hydrogen is the most environmentally damaging.

Blue Hydrogen

Blue Hydrogen is similar to grey hydrogen in that the majority of CO2 emissions are sequestered (stored in the Earth) by carbon capture and storage (CCS). Blue Hydrogen is a low-carbon fuel since it captures and stores carbon dioxide rather than releasing it into the environment. The two primary techniques of production are steam methane reforming and coal gasification, both of which include carbon capture and storage. Blue Hydrogen is a greener alternative to grey hydrogen; however, it is more costly since carbon capture technology is employed.

  • When carbon from steam reforming is collected and stored underground using industrial carbon capture and storage, hydrogen is labelled blue.
  • Because the emissions are not diffused in the atmosphere, blue hydrogen is sometimes referred to as carbon neutral.
  • However, 10-20% of the carbon produced cannot be captured.

Green Hydrogen

Green Hydrogen is Hydrogen created using power generated from renewable sources. Green Hydrogen is considered low or zero-emission Hydrogen since it generates power using renewable energy sources such as wind and solar, which do not emit greenhouse gases. When water (H2O) is divided into Hydrogen (H2) and oxygen, green Hydrogen is formed (O2). Water splitting, commonly known as electrolysis, demands the use of energy. The technique of providing electricity to split water is a costly operation, but it is much more environmentally friendly than grey hydrogen manufacturing.

Green Hydrogen in India
Green Hydrogen in India

Green Hydrogen in India

It currently makes up about 0.1% of overall hydrogen production. In order to reduce its emissions and meet the global climate goals, India has been planning to become a green hydrogen economy. The country has taken a number of steps in this direction, including setting up a national hydrogen policy and launching several pilot projects. 

The Indian government has set an ambitious target of deploying 175 gigawatts (GW) of renewable energy by 2022. A big part of this will come from solar and wind power, but there is also a plan to use Hydrogen as a storage medium to help manage fluctuations in renewable energy output. 

Other colours of Hydrogen

  • Turquoise hydrogen is a method of producing Hydrogen via methane pyrolysis, which produces solid carbon. There is no need for CCS, and the carbon can be used in other applications, like tyre manufacturing or as a soil improver.
  • Pink Hydrogen is formed by the electrolysis of water, just like green Hydrogen; however, it is driven by nuclear energy rather than renewables.
  • Yellow Hydrogen– a word used to describe Hydrogen produced by water electrolysis using sun energy. At the same time, it may also refer to Hydrogen produced by the electrolysis of water using a combination of sources, depending on what is available.

Current status of Hydrogen production

  • Currently, natural gas is used to make most of the hydrogen produced in the world, known as black hydrogen.
  • Grey hydrogen is also produced using low-carbon technology, although its worldwide market share is insignificant.
  • India aims to produce five million tonnes of renewable hydrogen by 2030.
  • Over the following decade, the government expects to add 175 GW of green hydrogen-based electricity.

Policy for Green Hydrogen in India

Current policies for Green Hydrogen in India can be summed up as follow

  • In 2021, the Green Hydrogen Mission was launched, with the goal of making India the Green Hydrogen hub.
  • The central government has set a target of 25 million tonnes of yearly manufacturing capacity by 2047.

National Hydrogen Energy Mission

On its 75th Independence day (i.e. 15th August 2021), India launched the National Hydrogen Mission. The Mission’s goal is to assist the government in attaining its climate goals and turning India into a green hydrogen centre. This will contribute to the goal of producing 5 million tonnes of Green Hydrogen by 2030, as well as the growth of renewable energy capacity.

  • This Mission will emphasise Hydrogen from clean sources.
  • It also plans to connect the country’s expanding renewable energy output to the hydrogen economyIndia’s renewable energy production goal for 2022 is 175 GW, and this Mission is projected to accelerate the process. Using Hydrogen would help India meet its Paris Agreement emission obligations while also lowering its reliance on imported fossil fuels.
  • End consumers of hydrogen energy include the transportation, chemical, and steel industries. Because they consume fossil fuels, these industries account for one-third of all greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing fossil fuels with Hydrogen in these industries will significantly cut GHG emissions.

Green Hydrogen/Green Ammonia Policy 2022

The policy key points are as follows :

  • The Green Hydrogen/Green Ammonia Policy offers free transmission for 25 years.
  • It Focuses on inter-State transmission connectivity.
  • The Green Hydrogen/Green Ammonia Policy, Plans to set up zones to manufacture green Hydrogen and ammonia.
  • Land for storage purposes will be provided by the port authorities at applicable rates.
  • The government is planning to require that industries that use a lot of Hydrogen and ammonia, like oil refining, fertiliser, and steel, use green Hydrogen for a certain amount of their needs.

Private investments in Hydrogen energy generation 

  • Reliance and L&T have declared plans to invest in the creation of hydrogen energy. L&T has signed an agreement with the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay to do research on green hydrogen technology.
  • In addition, the Indian Oil Corporation announced intentions to construct a green hydrogen plant at its Mathura refinery in Uttar Pradesh.
  • GAIL, like the state-owned power company NTPC, intends to construct India’s largest green hydrogen plant.

NITI AAYOG report, ‘Harnessing Green Hydrogen – opportunities for deep decarbonisation in India’ 2022

NITI AAYOG released report, ‘Harnessing Green Hydrogen – opportunities for deep decarbonisation in India’

Key Observations of the Report

  • Demand: India’s demand for hydrogen could increase by more than four times by 2050, making up almost 10 percent of the world’s total demand.
  • Decarbonizing the industrial sector: Green hydrogen is important for decarbonizing sectors that are hard to change, like fertilisers, refining, methanol, maritime shipping, iron and steel, and transportation.
  • By 2050, green hydrogen can reduce CO2 emissions by 3.6 gigatons.
  • Manufacturing and exports: A globally competitive green hydrogen industry could lead to export markets of green hydrogen and hydrogen-embedded low-carbon products like green ammonia and green steel, unlocking 95 GW of electrolysis capacity in the country by 2030.

In conclusion, Green Hydrogen in India is a promising technology that can help India achieve its goal of becoming a low-carbon economy. There are many potential applications for this technology, and the country is well-positioned to take advantage of it. India should continue to invest in research and development for green Hydrogen and work with other countries to promote its use.

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