nuclear power plant in india

Nuclear Power Plant in India Comprehensive List -Map [2022]

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Nuclear Power plant in India

In 2022 there is 22 nuclear power plant in India with operable reactors in seven locations, both inland and coastal, with Twelve more reactors under construction. Nuclear power generation currently supplies around 3.2 % of India’s electricity demand. India has made impressive strides in the development of its nuclear power infrastructure, Nuclear energy is increasingly being seen as a viable and sustainable option for meeting Indian’s fast-growing demand for electricity.

On 15 December 2022, Union Minister of State for Atomic Energy informed the Rajya Sabha that the prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) at the Kalpakkam nuclear power facility in Tamil Nadu is “almost complete.” It will be a boost for the Three Stage Nuclear Power Program and Nuclear Power plant in India.

UnitStateLocationType of ReactorCapacity (MW)
TAPS-1MaharashtraTarapurLWR (BWR)160
TAPS-2MaharashtraTarapurLWR (BWR)160
TAPS-3MaharashtraTarapurPHWR540
TAPS4MaharashtraTarapurPHWR540
RAPS-1RajasthanRawatbhataPHWR100
RAPS-2RajasthanRawatbhataPHWR200
RAPS-3RajasthanRawatbhataPHWR220
RAPS-4RajasthanRawatbhataPHWR220
RAPS-5RajasthanRawatbhataPHWR220
RAPS-6RajasthanRawatbhataPHWR220
NAPS-1Uttar PradeshNaroraPHWR220
NAPS-2Uttar PradeshNaroraPHWR220
KAPS-1GujaratKakraparPHWR220
KAPS-2GujaratKakraparPHWR220
KGS-1KarnatakaKaigaPHWR220
KGS-2KarnatakaKaigaPHWR220
KGS-3KarnatakaKaigaPHWR220
KGS-4KarnatakaKaigaPHWR220
MAPS-1Tamil NaduKalpakkamPHWR220
MAPS-2Tamil NaduKalpakkamPHWR220
KKNPP-1Tamil NaduKudankulamLWR (WER)1000
KKNPP-2Tamil NaduKudankulamLWR (WER)1000

India has one of the largest reserves of thorium.

According to India’s Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, a constituent unit of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), the country possesses 10.70 million tonnes of monazite, which comprises 9,63,000 tonnes of thorium oxide (ThO2).

The estimated 360,000 tonnes of thorium resources in India vastly outnumber the 70,000 tonnes of natural uranium deposits. The country’s thorium reserves account for 25% of worldwide reserves. It may be utilised as a fuel to reduce the import of Uranium from other nations. So India devised the three-stage nuclear power program.

Prototype Fast Breeder reactor

On 15 December 2022, Union Minister of State for Atomic Energy Jitendra Singh informed the Rajya Sabha that the prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) at the Kalpakkam nuclear power facility in Tamil Nadu is “almost complete.” 

It is being built at India’s Madras Atomic Power Station in Kalpakkam. This reactor was designed by the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research.

What is a Prototype Fast Breeder reactor (PFBR)?

The Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is a nuclear power reactor designed to produce more fuel than it consumes. The PFBR is the first-ever fast breeder reactor in India, and its construction is a major milestone in furthering nuclear energy in the country. This reactor uses a mix of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide as its fuel. It also uses a liquid sodium coolant, which allows for increased efficiency and safety standards.

As nuclear reaction fuel, the PFBR at Kalpakkam will employ a mixed oxide of plutonium-239 and uranium-238 obtained from reprocessed spent fuel from thermal pressurised heavy water reactors. This reaction will also generate more plutonium-239, or “breed” it. This is conceivable because the reaction turns both the uranium-238 in the fuel mix and the depleted uranium surrounding the core into plutonium.

This plutonium will subsequently be processed and utilised as nuclear fuel in a series of commercial FBRs, which is the second phase of the nuclear programme. The stage will also have FBRs that employ Indian-mined thorium-232 as a blanket. Thorium will be transformed into uranium-233, which will serve as the fuel for stage III advanced reactors. Eventually, these reactors will burn uranium-233 and convert thorium-232 to additional uranium-233, establishing a cycle of nuclear power production that is self-sustaining.

Three-stage nuclear power program of India

  • The first step was the development of a fleet of “pressurised heavy water reactors,” which consume rare Uranium to create a small amount of Plutonium.
  • The second phase involves the installation of many “fast breeder reactors” (FBRs).
  • These FBRs employ a combination of Plutonium and reprocessed’spent’ Uranium from the first stage to create energy and more Plutonium (thus the term ‘breeder’), as the Uranium would convert into Plutonium.
  • In addition, the reactors would convert some Thorium into Uranium-233, which may also be utilised to generate electricity.
  • After three to four decades of operation, the FBRs would have amassed sufficient Plutonium for the “third stage.”
  • In the third stage, Thorium-based reactors would be created, and Uranium-233 would be used in specifically engineered reactors to generate energy and convert more Thorium into Uranium-233; 

Nuclear Power Plant in India

  • Under the guidance of Dr Homi Bhabha India developed a three-stage nuclear power programme, aimed at optimum utilisation of India’s nuclear resource profile of modest uranium and abundant thorium.
  • The three stages policy of India comprises of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) in the first stage, then the Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) in the second stage and the last thorium-based systems in the third stage. The policy is aimed at a closed fuel cycle, where the spent or used nuclear fuel of one stage is reprocessed and utilised to produce fuel for the next stage.
  • There is presently 22 nuclear power plant in India with a total capacity of 6780 MW in operation and one reactor, KAPP-3 (700 MW) has been connected to the grid on January 10, 2021. The nuclear plant wise detail is given in the table.
  • The Government of India has granted administrative approval and financial sanction for the construction of 12 more nuclear power reactors which will comprise of-
    • 10 indigenous Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) -700 MW – to be set up in fleet mode. 
    • 2 Light Water Reactors (LWRs) to be set up in cooperation with Russian Federation. 
  • The details of new nuclear power projects are given below:

Nuclear plants in india under construction 2021

ProjectLocation & StateCapacity (MW)
KKNPP- 5&6Kudankulam Tamil Nadu2X1000
Chutka-1&2Chutka, Madhya Pradesh2X700
Kaiga-5&6Kaiga, Karnataka2X700
Mahi Banswara-1 &2Mahi Banswara, Rajasthan2X700
GHAVP-3&4Gorakhpur, Haryana2X700
Mahi Banswara- 3&4Mahi Banswara, Rajasthan2X700

Benefits of Nuclear Energy

Nuclear power has long been a source of clean, renewable energy. It produces fewer emissions than other forms of fuel, making it a popular choice for countries looking to reduce their environmental impact. Nuclear power provides many benefits that could help reduce our dependence on traditional sources of energy and create a more sustainable future.

One major benefit of nuclear power is its low cost relative to traditional sources of energy. The upfront costs associated with building and maintaining nuclear plants are far lower than other forms of power generation, leading to savings over the life cycle of the plant. Additionally, because nuclear plants run continuously without interruption from weather conditions or supply shortages, they can provide consistent and reliable electricity to communities in need at an affordable rate. 

Another advantage is that nuclear power produces minimal greenhouse gas emissions compared to traditional sources such as coal and natural gas.

Download Nuclear Power Plant in India Map

Future of Nuclear Power Plant in India

  • The majority of the nuclear power plant in India are indigenously designed pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs), although two Russian-designed WERs are in operation, with two further WERs under construction.
  • As is the case with other countries with PHWRs, India has started the process of refurbishing its reactors to allow for extended operation.
  • India has plans to increase its nuclear generation substantially. 
  • In January 2019 the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) announced that India plans to build 21 new nuclear power reactors – including 10 PHWRs – with a combined generating capacity of 15,700 MWe by 2031
  • In October 2019 DAE chairman Kamlesh Vyas said that 17 nuclear power reactors are planned in addition to those already under construction.
  • India’s Parliamentary Standing Committee on Science & Technology, Environment, Forests and Climate Change recommended in March 2020 that India should aim to at least double the present proportion of electricity generated by nuclear power plants by 2030. The committee said that, for the time being, India should adopt “home-grown” 700 MWe heavy water reactors for its nuclear expansion programme.

Government of India Atomic Energy Commission

  • The Indian Atomic Energy Commission was first established in August 1948 under the Department of Scientific Research, which itself was created a few months earlier in June 1948.
  • The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was established on August 3, 1954 under the direct charge of the Prime Minister through a Presidential Order.
  • Headquarters: Mumbai, Maharashtra.

In conclusion, nuclear power plants have a multitude of benefits for India such as providing an efficient, reliable and clean energy source. The use of nuclear power will decrease the amount of fossil fuels used, allowing us to continue fighting global warming and climate change. Additionally, the construction of a nuclear power plant in India will create more job opportunities for citizens and allow for the development of new technologies. Moreover, it will increase the country’s energy independence by reducing its reliance on other countries for imported resources.

How many nuclear power plants are in India?

There is presently 22 nuclear power plant in India with a total capacity of 6780 MW in operation (As of 2021). With Twelve more reactors under construction.

Which is India’s first atomic power plant?

Tarapur Atomic Power Plant-1 (TAPS-1) is the first and the oldest Atomic Power Plant In India. 

Which is the Biggest nuclear power plant in India?

Kundankulam Nuclear power Plant in Tamil Nadu with two Light Water Reactors (VVER) and total capacity of 2000 MW is the largest nuclear power plant in India.

This was a brief about Nuclear Power Plant in India. If you want to learn more abut nuclear power plant in India refer to government website

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