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Rajasthan is one of the most colorful and vibrant states in India. It is known for its beautiful palaces, forts, and temples. The people of Rajasthan are warm and friendly, and the culture is rich and diverse. There is much to see and do in Rajasthan, from camel safaris to shopping in the bazaars. 

Rajasthan, sometimes known as the “Land of Kings” or “Land of Kingdoms,” is India’s biggest State in terms of land area. The State is situated in the northwest corner of the nation and is a haven for cultural variety. Its highlights include Indus Valley Civilization remains, temples, forts, and fortresses in practically every city. Rajasthan is split into nine regions: Ajmer State, Hadoti, Dhundhar, Gorwar, Shekhawati, Mewar, Marwar, Vagad, and Mewat, all of which have significant cultural and creative contributions. These areas have a history that is parallel to that of the State.

Rajasthan, located in western India, is one of the most culturally rich and diverse states in the country. The landscape of Rajasthan is as varied as its culture, with snow-capped mountains, deserts, and lush green forests. The state is known for its vibrant colors, opulent palaces, intricate carvings, and delicious food.

Rajasthan’s culture is a melting pot of Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, and Sikhism. Each religion has its own unique customs and traditions that are celebrated throughout the year. Some of the most popular festivals in Rajasthan include Diwali (the Hindu festival of lights), Eid al-Fitr (the Muslim festival of breaking the fast), Navratri (a nine-day celebration of Hindu goddess Durga), and Teej (a three-day festival honoring women).

Keoladeo National Park in Bharatpur is a world heritage site notable for its bird life. This State also contains two national tiger reserves, Ranthambore National Park in Sawai Madhopur and Sariska Tiger Reserve in Alwar.

The State was founded on 30th March 1949, when the British Crown integrated Rajputana into the Dominion of India. Jaipur, the State’s biggest city, was designated as its capital.

Rajasthan’s early history includes some of the famous Maharanas, Nawabs, and Rulers. Prithiviraj Chouhan, Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya (also known as Hemu), Mughal Emperor Akbar, Maharana Udai Singh, Maharana Pratap, Raja Maan Singh, and others were prominent among them.

Rajasthan’s historically autonomous kingdoms established a rich architectural and cultural history, which can still be seen today in various forts and palaces that include Muslim and Jain architectural elements.

Rajasthan is bordered by the states of Punjab and Haryana to the north, by Delhi and Uttar Pradesh to the east, by Madhya Pradesh to the southeast, and by Gujarat to the southwest. To the west lies Pakistan’s province of Balochistan. The Thar Desert occupies a large part of Rajasthan’s eastern and southern regions.

The name Rajasthan literally means “Land of Kings”. The region was historically known as Marwar or Jodhpur region after its largest princely state.

What comes to mind when you think of Rajasthan? The first thing that comes to my mind is the beautiful camel rides. Camel rides are a popular tourist attraction in Rajasthan. The camels are well-groomed and very comfortable to ride. The view from the top of the camel is absolutely stunning! You can see for miles and miles, and the scenery is just beautiful. 

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Rajasthan is the biggest State in India, with a geographical area of 34.22 million acres, accounting for 10.41 per cent of the country’s total area. It is located between latitudes 23° 4′ and 30° 11′ N and longitudes 69° 29′ to 78° 17′ E, and it shares an international boundary with Pakistan to the west. The State is divided into four major physiographic regions: the western Desert, which has barren hills, level rocky plains, and sandy plains. The Aravalli hills, which run south-west to north-east from Gujarat to Delhi, the eastern plains, which have rich alluvial soils, and the south-eastern plateau. The State’s major rivers include the Mahi, Chambal, and Anas.

The State’s climate ranges from semi-arid to arid. The temperature in the State varies from 25°C to 50°C, except in the winter when it descends to 0°C in certain areas. The average rainfall varies from 480 mm to 750 mm, with desert regions receiving as little as 150 mm and the south-eastern plateau receiving 1000 mm.

The State’s overall population is 56.51 million (Census 2001), accounting for 5.5 per cent of the country’s total population. This is made up of 77% rural and 23% urban areas. The population density is 165 people per square kilometre. The Scheduled Tribes account for 12.6% of the overall population. Rajasthan has the country’s second highest livestock population, at 49.14 million (Livestock Census 2003), which has expanded little from the 1992 census. 

Forest Resources

Natural forest resources are scarce in the State. The entire forest area of the State is 32,488 km2, accounting for 9.3 per cent of the State’s geographic area. By legal status, Reserved Forests account for 37%, Protected Forests 53%, and Unclassified Forests 10%.

Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest and Tropical Thorn Forest are the two most common forest types in the State. Forests are primarily restricted to the State’s eastern and southern regions. Because of the prevailing hot, dry conditions, the western section of the State is Desert and devoid of woods.

Protected Areas

There are 5 National Parks and 23 Wildlife Sanctuaries spanning an area of 0.96 million hectares, or 2.80 per cent of the State’s geographical area. Ranthambhore and Sariska Tiger Reserves are located in Rajasthan. Keoladeo Ghana National Park in Bharatpur is internationally significant for its diverse avifauna and migrating Siberian cranes. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site as well as a Ramsar site. Sambhar Lake has also received Ramsar designation.

Introduction

Rajasthan is in the north of India. It shares borders with the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Gujarat, as well as with Pakistan to the west and northwest. With a land area of 342,239 square kilometres, Rajasthan is India’s largest State. The nine areas that makeup Ajmer State are Hadoti, Dhundhar, Gorwar, Shekhawati, Mewar, Marwar, Vagad, and Mewat.

Most of the western part of Rajasthan is dry and unproductive. Rajasthan is home to the Thar Desert, which is also called the Great Indian Desert, and the Chambal River, which is the only source of water in the area. Four smart cities in Rajasthan are Jaipur, Udaipur, Kota, and Ajmer.

Demographic Profile

In 2011, there were 68.5 million people living in Rajasthan. From 2001, when there were 56.5 million people, the number has grown by 21.2%. In 2011, there were 0.928 women for every man. This means that men outnumbered women. In the same year, 66.1 per cent of people in the State could read and write, 43.6 per cent of people worked, and there were 200 people per square kilometre.

Economy profile

Gross state domestic product (GSDP) for 2020-2021 was estimated to be Rs 957,912 crore, which was 4.11 per cent less than the previous year. In 2019-2020, the State’s GSDP grew by 8.38 per cent and reached Rs 998,999 crore. For 2020-2021, it was thought that each person would make Rs 109,386. This is 5.29 per cent less than the Rs 115,492 that was made in 2019-2020.

In 2020-2021, agriculture was expected to make up 29.77% of all output. The services sector is expected to make up 45.43 per cent of the economy, while the industries sector will make up 24.8 per cent. The industries sector includes mining, manufacturing, electricity, gas, water supply, and other utility services, as well as construction.

Industries

Agriculture

Gross state domestic product (GSDP) was expected to be Rs 957,912 crore in 2020-2021, which was 4.11 per cent less than the year before. The State’s GSDP increased by 8.38 per cent and reached Rs 998,999 crore in 2019-2020. It was thought that each person would make Rs 109,386 in 2020-2021. This is 5,29% less than what was made in 2019-2020, which was Rs 115,492.

In 2020-2021, 29.77% of all output was expected to come from agriculture. 45.43 per cent of the economy will come from the services sector, while 24.8 per cent will come from the industries sector. The mining, manufacturing, electricity, gas, water, and other utility services, as well as construction, are all part of the industries sector.

Mining and minerals

Rajasthan has a lot of natural resources. It makes 81 different kinds of minerals, like wollastonite, lead, zinc, calcite, gypsum, rock phosphate, silver, marble, sandstone, and serpentine (green marble). Rajasthan is also the most important place in India for making fire clay, ball clay, phosphorite, ochre, steatite, and felspar.

Cement

A lot of natural resources can be found in Rajasthan. It makes 81 different minerals, like wollastonite, lead, zinc, calcite, gypsum, rock phosphate, silver, marble, sandstone, and serpentine (green marble). Rajasthan is also where most of India’s fire clay, ball clay, phosphorite, ochre, steatite, and felspar are made.

Renewable energy

Rajasthan is a good place to make solar energy because it gets a lot of sunlight and has a lot of flat, undeveloped land. As of April 2021, thermal energy contributed 13,344.49 megawatts (MW) to Rajasthan’s total installed power generation capacity, hydro contributed 1,939.19 MW, and renewable energy contributed 10,244.50 MW.

Tourism

Rajasthan, located in western India, is one of the most visited states in the country. The state has a diverse landscape that ranges from the Thar Desert in the north to the Aravali Hills in the south. Tourists can visit a variety of attractions in Rajasthan, including palaces, forts, temples, and wildlife sanctuaries. 

Some of the most popular tourist destinations in Rajasthan include Jaipur, Jodhpur, Udaipur, Jaisalmer, and Ranthambore National Park. Jaipur is known as the “Pink City” because many of its buildings are painted pink. It is home to several historical attractions, including Amber Fort and Hawa Mahal.

Rajasthan is one of India’s most beautiful places for tourists to visit. The State gets a lot of tourists every year because of its palaces and forts. Behind each palace and fort is a fascinating story about its kings, their kingdoms, and the colourful culture of Rajasthan. In 2013, UNESCO named six of the forts World Heritage Sites: Chittorgarh Fort, Kumbhalgarh Fort, Ranthambhore Fort, Gagaron Fort, Amber Fort, and Jaisalmer Fort.

Rajasthan also draws tourists with its fairs and festivals, handicrafts, heritage hotels, adventure tourism, rural and eco-tourism, religious tourism, and temple architecture. In the past few years, the State has done a lot to improve and grow tourism.

Capital: Jaipur

Capital Jaipur is a city in the state of Rajasthan in India. It is the tenth most populous city in the country, with a population of more than 3.1 million people. The city is the administrative center of Jaipur district and the capital of Rajasthan.

Jaipur was founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amber. He commissioned architect Vidyadhar Bhattacharya to design and build a new city as an alternative to his former capital, Amer, which was located on top of a hill. Jai Singh named the city after himself, “Jayapura”.

Jaipur is a mix of old-world charm and modernity.

Major Cities: Udaipur, Bikaner, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Ajmer, Kota

Districts: 33

  • Ajmer
  • Alwar
  • Banswara
  • Baran
  • Barmer
  • Bharatpur
  • Bhilwara
  • Bikaner
  • Bundi
  • Chittorgarh
  • Churu
  • Dausa
  • Dholpur
  • Dungarpur
  • Hanumangarh
  • Jaipur
  • Jaisalmer
  • Jalore
  • Jhalawar
  • Jhunjhunu
  • Jodhpur
  • Karauli
  • Kota
  • Nagaur
  • Pali
  • Pratapgarh
  • Rajsamand
  • Sawai Madhopur
  • Sikar
  • Sirohi
  • Sri Ganganagar
  • Tonk
  • Udaipur

Formed on: 26th January 1950. Reorganized on 1st November 1956.

Languages: Hindi, Rajasthani, Marwari, Mewari, Jaipuri, Malwi.

Physical Characteristics: The Aravalli range divides Rajasthan into two divisions: 

  1. North-western region – Arid & unproductive Desert in the far west & northwest. 
  2. South-eastern region -Fertile & topographically diverse Natural Vegetation. 

 Major Rivers       

  • Chambal From the Janapav To Madhya Pradesh 
  • Sabarmati From Aravalli Ranges To Gulf of Cambay 
  • Banas river Origin in Rajasthan Joins Chambal. 
  • Luni River From Aravalli Ranges.

Major Regional Festivals: Gangaur, Teej, Brij Holi, Nagaur, Kota Festival, Pushkar Mela

Primary Art Forms: Ghoomer, Gair, Chari, Kacchi Ghodi, Kathputli, Bhavai, Drum dance, Fire dance, Terah Taali & Maand

 Industries: Textiles, vegetable oil, gemstones, steel, wool, minerals, cement, ceramic and chemicals. Handicrafts – such as leather goods, marble work, jewellery, pottery, embossed brass

Minerals: Lead, zinc, feldspar, emeralds, wollastonite, garnets, gypsum, silver, rock phosphate, gypsum

Geographical Indications: Kota Doria, Kathputlis, Blue pottery, Molela clay work, Sanganeri Hand Block Printing, Phulkari, Bikaneri Bhujia, Bagru hand block print, Thewa artwork, Makrana marble

State Animal: Camel

The camel is the state animal of Rajasthan. It is a large and sturdy animal that can survive in difficult conditions. Camels are used for transportation, carrying goods and materials, and for dairy production. They are also used in ceremonies and festivals. Camels are considered an important part of Rajasthani culture and heritage.

State Bird: Great Indian Bustard

The Great Indian Bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps) is the state bird of Rajasthan, India. It is a large bird, measuring up to 130 cm in length and weighing up to 8 kg. The male is slightly larger than the female. It has a long neck and legs, and a broad wingspan. The head, neck and breast are black, while the belly and undertail are white. The upperparts are pale brown, with dark streaks. The bill is long and curved downwards. The Great Indian Bustard is a terrestrial bird that feeds on insects, seeds and reptiles. It breeds on open plains and lowlands, laying 2-4 eggs in a ground nest. In India, it is found mainly in Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra.

State Flower: Rohida (Tecomella undulata)

The Rajasthan state flower is Rohida (Tecomella undulata). This evergreen shrub is a member of the Bignoniaceae family. It typically grows to a height of 6-8 feet and has a spread of 4-6 feet. The leaves are compound, with 5-7 leaflets. The flowers are trumpet-shaped, and can be either red or orange in color. The fruit is a pod that splits open to release the seeds. Rohida is found in dry, deciduous forests throughout Rajasthan. It is commonly used for hedging and screen planting.

State Tree: Khejri (Prosopis cineraria)

The Rajasthan state tree is the Khejri (Prosopis cineraria). It is a medium-sized to large tree that can grow up to 30 meters tall. The trunk is often crooked and the branches are spiny. The leaves are bipinnate, with each leaflet being about 2 cm long. The flowers are small and yellow, and the fruit is a pod about 15 cm long. The Khejri tree is found in many parts of Rajasthan, where it is used for fuel, fodder, and timber.

World Heritage Sites:

  1. Jantar Mantar 
  2. Keoladeo National Park     
  3. Chittorgarh Fort   
  4. Kumbhalgarh  
  5. Ranthambore Fort       
  6. Gagron Fort  
  7. Amber Fort      
  8. Jaisalmer Fort

Ramsar Sites: – 

  1. Keoladeo Ghana National Park 
  2. Sambhar Lake

Bird Sanctuaries:

  1. Keoladeo Ghana National Park 
  2. Tai Chhapar Sanctuary 
  3. Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary

National Parks

  1. Sariska National Park
  2. Ranthambore National Park 
  3. Desert National Park 
  4. Keoladeo Ghana National Park

In conclusion, Rajasthan is a beautiful and culturally rich state in India that is worth exploring. There are many tourist destinations in Rajasthan that are worth visiting, such as Jaipur, Jodhpur, Udaipur, and Jaisalmer. The people of Rajasthan are warm and welcoming, and the food is delicious. I highly recommend visiting Rajasthan if you have the opportunity.

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